By Swami Harshananda
Sometimes transliterated as: Varuna, VaruNa, Varuna
General Alliance of Varuṇa
Varuṇa ‘the one who encompasses the whole world,’ is one of the oldest Vedic deities. He is believed to be the personification of the sky and clouds. He is also associated with water, rivers and ocean. He is sometimes clubbed with Mitra and praised as Mitrāvaruṇa.
Family and descendants
The Rig Veda mentions him as one of the 12 Adityas, and so his mother was Aditi and father was Kashyapa.
His wife is named Varuni.
The rivers in general are said to be his wives. One such river is called Puniasa (Parnasa) who is the mother of Varuna's son Srutayudha.
He also, according to the Mahabharata, has a son named Pushkara, who married Soma's daughter Jyotsnakali.
According to some Puranas, Jalandhara was his son, who was given birth to by Ganga.
His major cities are known as Mukhya, Nimlochani, Sukha, and Vibhavari.
His region of residence within Rasātala-loka is known as Asuranam Bandhanam.
He is also known as Ambupa, Appati, Pashi, Prachetas, Nadipati, Sarimapati, Toyesa, and Yadasampati.
Because he is the God Almighty in Zoroastrianism, he has 99 names, the most prominent of which is Ahura Mazda.
Significance of Varuṇa
Varuṇa is the king of the universe and lives in the highest world. His knowledge and power are unlimited. He has thousand eyes and oversees the whole world. Hence he is the lord of the moral law. He punishes those who transgress this law but forgives them out of compassion if they repent and pray. By activating Vāyu, the lord of the wind, he sustains life by giving rain and crops.
Mythological Significance of Varuṇa
Though Varuṇa was the chief deity in the beginning, he seems to have yielded his place later on to Indra and Prajāpati. In the subsequent mythological literature, Varuṇa is described as the presiding deity of the western quarter and as the lord of oceans, water and aquatic animals.
Picturesque of Varuṇa Deity
In some of the temples, he is depicted as riding on a crocodile. In two of his four arms he holds the serpent and the noose. Sometimes he is even pictured as riding a chariot drawn by seven swans and holding the lotus, the noose, the conch and a vessel of gems in the four hands. There is an umbrella over his head.
- Noose means pāśa.
- The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore