Difference between revisions of "Darśapurṇamāsa"

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia
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<small>By Swami Harshananda</small>
 
<small>By Swami Harshananda</small>
  
Vedic sacrifices called as yajñas and yāgas are an ancient institution. One of its varieties is ‘isti,a sacrifice performed with the four priests. These four priests are:
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‘Iṣṭi’, a sacrifice performed with the four priests '''Adhvaryu, Āgnīdhra, Hotṛ, Brahman''', is one of the varieties of Vedic sacrifices called yajñas and yāgas which are ancient institution. The Darśapurṇamāsa is a prakṛti (an archetype) in this Iṣṭi group and is obligatory. The words ‘darśa’ and ‘purṇamāsa’ actually stand for the new-moon and the full-moon days. Hence, the Vedic rites to be performed on these days are named as ‘Darśa’ and ‘Purṇamāsa’. The two are identical in almost all the respects except for some minor variations. Consequently, they are often clubbed together and called, ‘Darśapurṇamāsa.’  
# Adhvaryu
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# Āgnīdhra
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# Hotṛ  
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# Brahman
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==Similarity in Darśa and Purṇamāsa Sacrifice==
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The Darśapurṇamāsa is a prakṛti (an archetype) in this iṣṭi group. This rite is obligatory. The words ‘darśa’ and ‘purṇamāsa’ actually stand for the new-moon and the full-moon days. Hence, the Vedic rites to be performed on these days are named as ‘Darśa’ and ‘Purṇamāsa’. The two are identical in almost all the respects except for some minor variations. Consequently, they are often clubbed together and called, ‘Darśapurṇamāsa.’
+
  
 
==Difference in Darśa and Purṇamāsa Sacrifice==  
 
==Difference in Darśa and Purṇamāsa Sacrifice==  
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* The preliminaries like shaving, bathing and fasting are done by the sacrificer on the day called ‘upavasaha’.<ref>Day of fasting and living near the fire</ref>
 
* The preliminaries like shaving, bathing and fasting are done by the sacrificer on the day called ‘upavasaha’.<ref>Day of fasting and living near the fire</ref>
  
* This is followed by anvādhāna. In this rite three pieces of sacrificial wood are offered into the fire.
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* This is followed by anvādhāna, in which three pieces of sacrificial wood are offered into the fire.
  
* Then the rite called as Pmdapitṛyajña is observed. It is a obsequial rite for the forefathers up to three generations.
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* The other rites to follow are: Piṇḍapitṛyajña - obsequial rite for the forefathers up to three generations; usual daily Agnihotra ; preparing curdled milk for offering for next day; preparing the  puroḍāśa (rice-cakes) for offering ; repetition of the sāmidheni verses<ref>Eleven verses from the Ṛgveda, mostly from the third Maṇḍala, aimed at kindling the fire</ref>; Āghāra libation<ref>Libation wherein the adhvaryu pours ghee into the fire moving the spoon all over, with appropriate mantras</ref>  and five prayāja and two ājyabhāga oblations (preliminary offerings).
  
* Then the usual Agnihotra sacrament is performed.
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* After all these procedures,  the principle offerings are made with puroḍāśa (rice-cakes) to the accompaniment of puro’nuvākyas<ref>Call or invitation to the deities by the hotṛ priest</ref> and yājyās.<ref>Technical formula of consecration chanted by the hotṛ priest while the adhvaryu priest offers a libation of ghee</ref>. In the Darśa ritual, eleven offerings of Puroḍāśa are kept in small earthen plates.
 
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* After that the curdled milk for next day's offering is prepared.
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* Then the puroḍāśa (rice-cakes) is offered.
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* After that the sāmidheni verses<ref>Eleven verses from the Ṛgveda, mostly from the third Maṇḍala, aimed at kindling the fire</ref> are repeated.
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* Āghāra libation<ref>Libation wherein the adhvaryu pours ghee into the fire moving the spoon all over, with appropriate mantras</ref> is offered after that.
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* Then five prayāja and two ājyabhāga oblations (preliminary offerings) are offered.
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* After all these procedures,  the principle offerings are made with puroḍāśa (rice-cakes) to the accompaniment of puro’nuvākyas<ref>Call or invitation to the deities by the hotṛ priest</ref> and yājyās.<ref>Technical formula of consecration chanted by the hotṛ priest while the adhvaryu priest offers a libation of ghee</ref>
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* In the Darśa ritual, eleven offerings of Puroḍāśa are kept in small earthen plates. These offerings are offered to Indra and Agni. In the Purṇamāsa, the offerings are made to Agni and Soma.
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* This is followed by the sviṣṭakṛt offering<ref>Sviṣṭakṛt is a secondary offering to Agni by whose goodwill the sacrifice has been successfully done</ref> and iḍābhakṣaṇa.<ref>Iḍābhakṣaṇa is a rite which includes eating the portions cut off from all the main offerings by the priests.</ref>
 
* This is followed by the sviṣṭakṛt offering<ref>Sviṣṭakṛt is a secondary offering to Agni by whose goodwill the sacrifice has been successfully done</ref> and iḍābhakṣaṇa.<ref>Iḍābhakṣaṇa is a rite which includes eating the portions cut off from all the main offerings by the priests.</ref>
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* Then comes anuyāja (three supplementary offerings) followed by suktavāka (speech of adoration by the hotṛ priest) and śaiṅyuvāka (formula of benediction by the hotṛ priest).
 
* Then comes anuyāja (three supplementary offerings) followed by suktavāka (speech of adoration by the hotṛ priest) and śaiṅyuvāka (formula of benediction by the hotṛ priest).
  
* Few more minor rites are performed after all these rites. Then the whole ritual comes to an end. These rites are:
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* Few more minor rites are performed after all these rites,then the whole ritual comes to an end and these rites include:
# Patnīsamyāja - offerings to the consorts of the deities
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# Patnīsamyāja - offerings to the consorts of the deities.
# Removal of the yoktra - a belt of muñja grass
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# Removal of the yoktra - a belt of muñja grass.
# Prāyaścittas - expiatory rites  
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# Prāyaścittas - expiatory rites.
# Viṣṇukrama - ceremonially taking four steps with appropriate mantras, by the yajamāna or the sacrificer
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# Viṣṇukrama - ceremonially taking four steps with appropriate mantras, by the yajamāna or the sacrificer.
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
 
* The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore
 
* The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore
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[[Category:Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism]]

Revision as of 22:44, 1 March 2016

By Swami Harshananda

Sometimes transliterated as: Darsapurnamasa, DarZapurNamAsa, Darshapurnamaasa


‘Iṣṭi’, a sacrifice performed with the four priests Adhvaryu, Āgnīdhra, Hotṛ, Brahman, is one of the varieties of Vedic sacrifices called yajñas and yāgas which are ancient institution. The Darśapurṇamāsa is a prakṛti (an archetype) in this Iṣṭi group and is obligatory. The words ‘darśa’ and ‘purṇamāsa’ actually stand for the new-moon and the full-moon days. Hence, the Vedic rites to be performed on these days are named as ‘Darśa’ and ‘Purṇamāsa’. The two are identical in almost all the respects except for some minor variations. Consequently, they are often clubbed together and called, ‘Darśapurṇamāsa.’

Difference in Darśa and Purṇamāsa Sacrifice

The Darśa sacrifice is done on the new-moon day and the day following it. The Purṇamāsa is performed on the full-moon day and the following day. The only difference in the procedure between these two sacrifices is that the puroḍāśa (rice-cake). It is offered to Indra and Agni in the Darśa whereas the same is offered to Agni and Soma in the Purṇamāsa.

Procedure of Darśa and Purṇamāsa Sacrifice

  • The preliminaries like shaving, bathing and fasting are done by the sacrificer on the day called ‘upavasaha’.[1]
  • This is followed by anvādhāna, in which three pieces of sacrificial wood are offered into the fire.
  • The other rites to follow are: Piṇḍapitṛyajña - obsequial rite for the forefathers up to three generations; usual daily Agnihotra ; preparing curdled milk for offering for next day; preparing the puroḍāśa (rice-cakes) for offering ; repetition of the sāmidheni verses[2]; Āghāra libation[3] and five prayāja and two ājyabhāga oblations (preliminary offerings).
  • After all these procedures, the principle offerings are made with puroḍāśa (rice-cakes) to the accompaniment of puro’nuvākyas[4] and yājyās.[5]. In the Darśa ritual, eleven offerings of Puroḍāśa are kept in small earthen plates.
  • This is followed by the sviṣṭakṛt offering[6] and iḍābhakṣaṇa.[7]
  • Then comes anuyāja (three supplementary offerings) followed by suktavāka (speech of adoration by the hotṛ priest) and śaiṅyuvāka (formula of benediction by the hotṛ priest).
  • Few more minor rites are performed after all these rites,then the whole ritual comes to an end and these rites include:
  1. Patnīsamyāja - offerings to the consorts of the deities.
  2. Removal of the yoktra - a belt of muñja grass.
  3. Prāyaścittas - expiatory rites.
  4. Viṣṇukrama - ceremonially taking four steps with appropriate mantras, by the yajamāna or the sacrificer.

References

  1. Day of fasting and living near the fire
  2. Eleven verses from the Ṛgveda, mostly from the third Maṇḍala, aimed at kindling the fire
  3. Libation wherein the adhvaryu pours ghee into the fire moving the spoon all over, with appropriate mantras
  4. Call or invitation to the deities by the hotṛ priest
  5. Technical formula of consecration chanted by the hotṛ priest while the adhvaryu priest offers a libation of ghee
  6. Sviṣṭakṛt is a secondary offering to Agni by whose goodwill the sacrifice has been successfully done
  7. Iḍābhakṣaṇa is a rite which includes eating the portions cut off from all the main offerings by the priests.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore