Difference between revisions of "Jāva"

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia
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Religion and culture was proliferating to the various islands of South East Asia from the first century CE. Some of the kings of South India who were defeated by their rivals, migrated to the islands like Jāva and established their own kingdoms there. Jāva  was known as Yavadvīpa. It existed probably from the 10th century CE. It was the home of well-known dynasties of kings like Śrīvijaya Rāja.
 
Religion and culture was proliferating to the various islands of South East Asia from the first century CE. Some of the kings of South India who were defeated by their rivals, migrated to the islands like Jāva and established their own kingdoms there. Jāva  was known as Yavadvīpa. It existed probably from the 10th century CE. It was the home of well-known dynasties of kings like Śrīvijaya Rāja.
  
==Jāva as per Ajiśaka==
+
The work Ajiśaka states that during the 1st century CE, twenty thousand people migrated from Kaliṅga (Orissa, India) and  settled in the island of Jāva. A very large number of scriptural works in Sanskrit, except the Vedas, written in the Kawi script have been discovered here.
The work Ajiśaka states that during the first century A. D., twenty thousand people migrated from Kaliṅga (Orissa, India) and  settled in the island of Jāva. A very large number of scriptural works in Sanskrit, except the Vedas, written in the Kawi script have been discovered here.  
+
 
 +
Śaivism made its first appearance in Jāva around 4th century CE. The oldest idol of Gaṇeśa has been found on the Dieng plateau, but the idol found near Borobudur is considered to be the finest.
  
 
==Scriptures Found in Jāva==
 
==Scriptures Found in Jāva==
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===Mantraśāstra===
 
===Mantraśāstra===
Rituals and modes of worship have been mentioned in Mantraśāstra. The sections found here are:
+
Rituals and modes of worship have been mentioned in Mantraśāstra. The sections found here include :
 
* Suryasevana - pujā of Siva and Āditya
 
* Suryasevana - pujā of Siva and Āditya
 
* Several mantras connected with ritualistic worship
 
* Several mantras connected with ritualistic worship
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===Nītiśāstra===
 
===Nītiśāstra===
Nītiśāstra denotes the ethics subscribed for a person to lead life. Some of them have been found in Jāva. They are:
+
Nītiśāstra denotes the ethics subscribed for a person to lead life. Nītiśāstra found in Jāva include:
 
* Sārasamuccaya of Vararuci
 
* Sārasamuccaya of Vararuci
 
* Adipurāna
 
* Adipurāna
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===Dharmaśāstra===
 
===Dharmaśāstra===
It deals with the social sciences. The versions found there are:
+
It deals with the social sciences. The versions found there include:
 
* Śivaśāsana
 
* Śivaśāsana
 
* Kutāra Mānavāgama
 
* Kutāra Mānavāgama
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===Vyākaraṇa===
 
===Vyākaraṇa===
Vyākaraṇa means the grammar. The modules found there are:
+
Vyākaraṇa means the grammar. The modules found there include:
 
* Ādisvara
 
* Ādisvara
 
* Amaramālā
 
* Amaramālā
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* The Rāmakavaca of 22 verses in Sanskrit was recovered there. It appears to be quite popular even now.
 
* The Rāmakavaca of 22 verses in Sanskrit was recovered there. It appears to be quite popular even now.
  
==Śaivism in Jāva==
+
Śaivism made its first appearance in Jāva around 4th century CE. The oldest idol of Gaṇeśa has been found on the Dieng plateau. An another idol found near Borobudur is considered to be the finest.
+
 
+
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}

Revision as of 03:53, 7 July 2016

By Swami Harshananda

Sometimes transliterated as: Java, JAva, Jaava


Religion and culture was proliferating to the various islands of South East Asia from the first century CE. Some of the kings of South India who were defeated by their rivals, migrated to the islands like Jāva and established their own kingdoms there. Jāva was known as Yavadvīpa. It existed probably from the 10th century CE. It was the home of well-known dynasties of kings like Śrīvijaya Rāja.

The work Ajiśaka states that during the 1st century CE, twenty thousand people migrated from Kaliṅga (Orissa, India) and settled in the island of Jāva. A very large number of scriptural works in Sanskrit, except the Vedas, written in the Kawi script have been discovered here.

Śaivism made its first appearance in Jāva around 4th century CE. The oldest idol of Gaṇeśa has been found on the Dieng plateau, but the idol found near Borobudur is considered to be the finest.

Scriptures Found in Jāva

Many scriptures are accounted to this region. The works recovered from there have been mentioned below.

Purāṇas

Purāṇas are the mythological works. The purāṇas found there are:

  1. Brahmāndapurāṇa
  2. Viṣṇupurāna

Mantraśāstra

Rituals and modes of worship have been mentioned in Mantraśāstra. The sections found here include :

  • Suryasevana - pujā of Siva and Āditya
  • Several mantras connected with ritualistic worship
  • Mṛtyuñjaya mantra
  • Gāyatrī mantra
  • Hymns like Visnustava

Nītiśāstra

Nītiśāstra denotes the ethics subscribed for a person to lead life. Nītiśāstra found in Jāva include:

  • Sārasamuccaya of Vararuci
  • Adipurāna
  • Kāmandaka Nitiśāstra

Dharmaśāstra

It deals with the social sciences. The versions found there include:

  • Śivaśāsana
  • Kutāra Mānavāgama
  • Devāgama
  • Svarajambu

Vyākaraṇa

Vyākaraṇa means the grammar. The modules found there include:

  • Ādisvara
  • Amaramālā
  • Vrttasañcaya

Others

  • Apart from these there is the famous Rāmāyana Kakawin in old Javanese.
  • Works on medicines, astrology, stories, literary classics and history have also been found.
  • The Rāmakavaca of 22 verses in Sanskrit was recovered there. It appears to be quite popular even now.


References

  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore