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By Swami Harshananda

Vitala is the nether world which is just below Atala. Śiva lives here along with his wife Bhavāni and bhutas.[1] His name is Hāṭakeśvara. There is a river called Hāṭakī here. Agni drinks it's water. What he spits out, it becomes hāṭaka or gold.


  1. Bhutas are the spirits and imps.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore