Difference between revisions of "Yatidharmasaṅgraha"

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<small>By Swami Harshananda</small>
 
<small>By Swami Harshananda</small>
  
Though the smṛtis, the dharmaśāstra and also the purāṇas, deal with the duties and responsibilities of persons belonging to the four varṇas<ref>Varṇas means castes.</ref> and āśramas,<ref>Āśramas means stages of life.</ref> there are only a few works that deal exclusively with Yatidharma or sanyāsa. The Yatidharmasañgraha is also known by two more names. They are:
+
Though the smṛtis, the dharmaśāstra and also the [[purāṇas]], deal with the duties and responsibilities of persons belonging to the four varṇas<ref>Varṇas means castes.</ref> and āśramas,<ref>Āśramas means stages of life.</ref> there are only a few works that deal exclusively with Yatidharma or [[sanyāsa]]. The Yatidharmasañgraha is also known by two more names. They are:
 
# The Yatidharmaprakāśa  
 
# The Yatidharmaprakāśa  
 
# The Yatidharmasamuccaya
 
# The Yatidharmasamuccaya
  
The Yatidharmasamuccaya of Viśveśvara-sarasvatī is perhaps the best among such treatises. He was a disciple of Sarvajña-viśveśa and lived earlier than A. D. 1600. Nothing more is known about the author.
+
The Yatidharmasamuccaya of Viśveśvara-[[sarasvatī]] is perhaps the best among such treatises. He was a disciple of Sarvajña-viśveśa and lived earlier than A. D. 1600. Nothing more is known about the author.
  
 
==Overview of Yatidharmasaṅgraha==
 
==Overview of Yatidharmasaṅgraha==
Though the work is in prose, it has been profusely quoted from the Upaniṣads, the purāṇas and the smṛtis. Some of them are:
+
Though the work is in prose, it has been profusely quoted from the Upaniṣads, the [[purāṇas]] and the smṛtis. Some of them are:
 
# Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad
 
# Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad
# Jābāla Upaniṣad
+
# Jā[[bāla]] Upaniṣad
 
# Katha Upaniṣad
 
# Katha Upaniṣad
 
# Mundaka Upaniṣad
 
# Mundaka Upaniṣad
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# Viṣṇupurāṇa
 
# Viṣṇupurāṇa
 
# Skandapurāṇa
 
# Skandapurāṇa
# Smṛti of Atri
+
# Smṛti of [[Atri]]
 
# Smṛti of Bṛhaspati
 
# Smṛti of Bṛhaspati
# Smṛti of Dakṣa
+
# Smṛti of [[Dakṣa]]
# Smṛti of Devala
+
# Smṛti of [[Devala]]
 
# Smṛti of Gobhila
 
# Smṛti of Gobhila
 
# Smṛti of Manu
 
# Smṛti of Manu
# Smṛti of Parāśara
+
# Smṛti of [[Parāśara]]
 
# Smṛti of Yājñavalkya  
 
# Smṛti of Yājñavalkya  
# Smṛti of Yama
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# Smṛti of [[Yama]]
  
 
==Contents of Yatidharmasaṅgraha==
 
==Contents of Yatidharmasaṅgraha==
 
The number of topics dealt with exceeds 90. The more important ones from among them are as follows:
 
The number of topics dealt with exceeds 90. The more important ones from among them are as follows:
* When to take sanyāsa
+
* When to take [[sanyāsa]]
 
* Śrāddhas to be performed
 
* Śrāddhas to be performed
* Certain rites to be performed by the āhitāgni<ref>Āhitāgni is the one who is keeping the Vedic fires.</ref> and others who have not
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* Certain rites to be performed by the [[Āhitāgni|āhitāgni]]<ref>[[Āhitāgni]] is the one who is keeping the Vedic fires.</ref> and others who have not
* Repetition of the praiṣa mantra three times, this being central to the whole process of taking sanyāsa
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* Repetition of the praiṣa [[mantra]] three times, this being central to the whole process of taking sanyāsa
 
* Accepting the external insignia of sanyāsa like:
 
* Accepting the external insignia of sanyāsa like:
 
# Doraka - girdle
 
# Doraka - girdle
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# Wearing-cloth
 
# Wearing-cloth
 
# Kantha - quilt of rags
 
# Kantha - quilt of rags
# Daṇḍa - staff
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# [[Daṇḍa]] - staff
* Approaching a competent guru<ref>Guru means preceptor.</ref> to acquire ātmajñāna<ref>Ātmajñāna means knowledge of the Self.</ref>
+
* Approaching a competent guru<ref>Guru means preceptor.</ref> to acquire [[Ātmajñāna|ātmajñāna]]<ref>[[Ātmajñāna]] means knowledge of the Self.</ref>
 
* Receiving the mahāvākya<ref>Mahāvākya means great Vedic sentence like tat tvam asi.</ref>
 
* Receiving the mahāvākya<ref>Mahāvākya means great Vedic sentence like tat tvam asi.</ref>
* Few things of necessity that a yati or a sanyāsin can keep for the maintenance of the body
+
* Few things of necessity that a [[yati]] or a sanyāsin can keep for the maintenance of the body
 
* Code of conduct
 
* Code of conduct
 
* Service to the guru
 
* Service to the guru
* Japa or repetition of praṇava<ref>Pranava means Orh.</ref> and Rudra<ref>Rudra means a Vedic passage.</ref>
+
* [[Japa]] or repetition of [[praṇava]]<ref>Pranava means Orh.</ref> and Rudra<ref>Rudra means a Vedic passage.</ref>
* Upāsanā<ref>Upāsanā means meditation.</ref> on the Ātman/Brahman
+
* Upāsanā<ref>Upāsanā means meditation.</ref> on the [[Ātman]]/Brahman
* Sanyāsin has no karma<ref>Karma means rituals.</ref> to perform
+
* Sanyāsin has no [[karma]]<ref>[[Karma]] means rituals.</ref> to perform
 
* Rules about ablutions, bath and other daily activities
 
* Rules about ablutions, bath and other daily activities
 
* Bhikṣācaryā or begging
 
* Bhikṣācaryā or begging
 
* How to observe the vows of cāturmāsya<ref>Cāturmāsya means ritual staying in a place during the rainy season.</ref>
 
* How to observe the vows of cāturmāsya<ref>Cāturmāsya means ritual staying in a place during the rainy season.</ref>
* Method of honoring guest-sanyāsins, the processes called paryaṅkavidhi and yoga-patta
+
* Method of honoring guest-sanyāsins, the processes called paryaṅkavidhi and [[yoga]]-patta
 
* Things forbidden for a sanyāsin
 
* Things forbidden for a sanyāsin
 
* Prāyaścittas or expiations for transgressions
 
* Prāyaścittas or expiations for transgressions
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==References==
 
==References==
 
{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
* The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore
+
* The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram [[Krishna]] Math, Bangalore
  
 
[[Category:Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism]]
 
[[Category:Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism]]

Latest revision as of 10:36, 19 December 2016

By Swami Harshananda

Sometimes transliterated as: Yatidharmasangraha, YatidharmasaGgraha, Yatidharmasangraha


Though the smṛtis, the dharmaśāstra and also the purāṇas, deal with the duties and responsibilities of persons belonging to the four varṇas[1] and āśramas,[2] there are only a few works that deal exclusively with Yatidharma or sanyāsa. The Yatidharmasañgraha is also known by two more names. They are:

  1. The Yatidharmaprakāśa
  2. The Yatidharmasamuccaya

The Yatidharmasamuccaya of Viśveśvara-sarasvatī is perhaps the best among such treatises. He was a disciple of Sarvajña-viśveśa and lived earlier than A. D. 1600. Nothing more is known about the author.

Overview of Yatidharmasaṅgraha

Though the work is in prose, it has been profusely quoted from the Upaniṣads, the purāṇas and the smṛtis. Some of them are:

  1. Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad
  2. bāla Upaniṣad
  3. Katha Upaniṣad
  4. Mundaka Upaniṣad
  5. Bhagavadgitā
  6. Viṣṇupurāṇa
  7. Skandapurāṇa
  8. Smṛti of Atri
  9. Smṛti of Bṛhaspati
  10. Smṛti of Dakṣa
  11. Smṛti of Devala
  12. Smṛti of Gobhila
  13. Smṛti of Manu
  14. Smṛti of Parāśara
  15. Smṛti of Yājñavalkya
  16. Smṛti of Yama

Contents of Yatidharmasaṅgraha

The number of topics dealt with exceeds 90. The more important ones from among them are as follows:

  • When to take sanyāsa
  • Śrāddhas to be performed
  • Certain rites to be performed by the āhitāgni[3] and others who have not
  • Repetition of the praiṣa mantra three times, this being central to the whole process of taking sanyāsa
  • Accepting the external insignia of sanyāsa like:
  1. Doraka - girdle
  2. Kaupīna - loin-cloth
  3. Wearing-cloth
  4. Kantha - quilt of rags
  5. Daṇḍa - staff
  • Approaching a competent guru[4] to acquire ātmajñāna[5]
  • Receiving the mahāvākya[6]
  • Few things of necessity that a yati or a sanyāsin can keep for the maintenance of the body
  • Code of conduct
  • Service to the guru
  • Japa or repetition of praṇava[7] and Rudra[8]
  • Upāsanā[9] on the Ātman/Brahman
  • Sanyāsin has no karma[10] to perform
  • Rules about ablutions, bath and other daily activities
  • Bhikṣācaryā or begging
  • How to observe the vows of cāturmāsya[11]
  • Method of honoring guest-sanyāsins, the processes called paryaṅkavidhi and yoga-patta
  • Things forbidden for a sanyāsin
  • Prāyaścittas or expiations for transgressions
  • Mādhukaribhikṣā[12]
  • Saṅyāsa purifies him and his family
  • Characteristics of a jivanmukta, the liberated soul.


References

  1. Varṇas means castes.
  2. Āśramas means stages of life.
  3. Āhitāgni is the one who is keeping the Vedic fires.
  4. Guru means preceptor.
  5. Ātmajñāna means knowledge of the Self.
  6. Mahāvākya means great Vedic sentence like tat tvam asi.
  7. Pranava means Orh.
  8. Rudra means a Vedic passage.
  9. Upāsanā means meditation.
  10. Karma means rituals.
  11. Cāturmāsya means ritual staying in a place during the rainy season.
  12. Mādhukaribhikṣā means collecting alms just as a bee collects honey, from not more than seven houses.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore