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By Swami Harshananda

Svara literally means ‘that which makes sound’.

This word has several meanings. They are:

  • In Sanskrit grammar, it represents the thirteen vowels.
  • In Vedic chanting, it stands for the three notes:
  1. Udātta
  2. Anudātta
  3. Sarita
  • In music, it denotes the seven basic notes like:
  1. Sadja
  2. Rṣabha
  3. Etc.


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore