Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.

Alexander III of Macedon

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Shri Sudheer Birodkar

Alexander III

Alexander III[1] was a Greek King who ruled over the largest empire in the world at that time. His kingdom extended from Greece up to Himalayas. After overcoming the Persian Achameanian Empire, Alexander III and his Macedonian (Greek) phalanxes crossed the Hindu Kush into Punjab in 330 B.C. At that time in India, tribal oligarchies were battling the rising Monarchical States in the Ganges Valley. The kingdoms that Alexander faced in Punjab were similar in organization to the tribal oligarchies of the Hills of Mithila north of Magadha, rather than to the proper monarchies of Magadha and Koshala.

The two main tribal-oligarchical kingdoms in the Punjab were Taxila ruled by Raja Ambastha (or Ambhi - Omphis in Greek) and Arratta ruled by Raja Pururava (or Puru - Porus in Greek). While Ambhi decided that discretion was the better part of valour and made a compromise with Alexander by joining forces with the invader.

Battle with Puru[edit]

Pururava’s kingdom extended between the Vipasha (Beas) and the Vitasta (Jhelum) rivers. Pururava fought a devastating battle with Alexander on the banks of the Vitasta and "the river flew red for a whole day during the battle". Pururava was defeated, but not before he had so demoralised the Macedonian army that it refused to advance forward to the kingdom of Magadha on the Ganges. The result of Alexander's raid was destruction of the tribal-oligarchical kingdoms in modern day Punjab. The battle was also the end of Alexander’s world conquest as he retraced his steps after making Pururava his vassal.


  1. Alexander III of Macedon is often referred to as "Alexander the Great"
  • Sudheer Birodkar, "A Hindu History: A Search for our Present History". Reprinted with permission.

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