Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Bhikṣu literally means ‘a mendicant’.

A bhikṣu is one who lives on alms got by begging. However, all beggars are not bhikṣus. The word is used more in a technical sense and applies to religious mendicants.

Renouncing the world and the worldly life in order to dedicate oneself to spiritual pursuits has been an ancient practice. Such persons generally moved about from place to place, sustain themselves by begging. Such a life of renunciation could be adopted from any stage of life, brahmacarya or the stage of a Vedic student, gārhasthya or the stage of a householder and vānaprastha or the stage of a forest dweller.

A bhikṣu represented the order of sanyāsa. He had to live a life of strict self-control and strive his utmost for mokṣa or liberation. A Bhikṣusutra attributed to one Karmanda has been mentioned in some dharmaśāstra works, but has not been traced. Another work of the same name attributed to Pārāśarya (Vyāsa) is perhaps the extant Brahmasutras or an earlier version of it.

The word ‘bhikṣu’ in course of time, came to represent the Buddhist and the Jain mendicants, rather than the sanyāsins.


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore