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Sri Ram Janam Bhoomi Prana Pratisha Article Competition winners

Rāmāyaṇa where ideology and arts meet narrative and historical context by Prof. Nalini Rao

Rāmāyaṇa tradition in northeast Bhārat by Virag Pachpore


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Gaṅgeśa is also known as Gaṅgeśa Upādhyāya (A. D. 1200). He was the brightest luminary among the logicians of Bengal who started a new school called ‘Navya-nyāya’. He belonged to Mithilā in North Bihar. He wrote only one work, the Tattvacintāmani in which he has dealt with only four pramāṇas[1] accepted by the Nyāya-sutras of the sage Gautama. They are:

  1. Pratyakṣa - direct perception
  2. Anumāna - inference
  3. Upamāna - comparison
  4. Śabda - Veda

His discussions on the anumāna aspect of knowledge received great attention among the scholars, thus developing an entirely new school of thought. A very large number of commentaries and sub-commentaries have been composed on this single work. Among them, the commentary of Raghunātha Śiromaṇi (A. D. 1500) and the sub-commentaries on the same became extremely popular among the scholars of Bengal. This work has major contribution in the direction of linguistic notations than in metaphysics.


  1. Pramāṇas are the means or methods of knowledge.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore