Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Modes of Chanting[edit]

The Vedas are the basic scriptures of the religion. The Samhitās are the core part of these Vedas. These Samhitās had to be committed to memory and passed on orally from generation to generation. Even now they have been preserved in a pure form. This was possible only due to the unique system of chanting that has evolved through these generations. There are various modes of chanting them. They are:

  1. Padapāṭha
  2. Kramapāṭha
  3. Jaṭāpāṭha
  4. Ghanapāṭha

As per Ṛgveda Samhitā[edit]

These four modes of chanting can be explained more clearly by choosing one sentence from the Ṛgveda Samhitā[1] and working upon it.


iin osadhayah sarh vadante somena II saha rājñā I


i osadhayah I sarh I vadante I l 2 3 II II somena I saha I rājñā I 4 ~~5 6


i i osadhayah sarh I sarh vadante I 1 2 2 3 II M vadante somena I somena saha I 3 4 4 5 ll n saha rājñā I rājñeti rājñā I _5 6 6 _ 6


i i osadhayah sarh samosadhaya 1 2 2 1 1 osadhayah sarh I 1 2 i sum vadante vadante sarh 2 3 3 2 l sam vadante I 1 3


i i osadhayah sarh samosadhaya l 2 2 1 1 i osadhayah sarh vadante 1 2 3 i i vadante samosadhaya osadhayah 3 — 2 l l i sam vadante 2 3 i sam vadante vadante sarh 2 3 3 _ 2 i ll sarh vadante somena.... 2 3 — 4

Splitting of Verses[edit]

  • When the text of the Samhitā is broken into the constituent words as per the rules of the prātiśākhyas,[2] we get the padapātha first. The other pāṭhas or readings can be got by a permutation and combination of the words of the padapātha. By numbering these words, the other pāṭhas can be shown as follows:
  • Kramapātha—1+2, 2+3, 3+4, 4+5, 5+6.
  • Jaṭāpāṭha—1+2, 2+1, 1+2; 2+3, 3+2, 2+3; and so on.
  • Ghanapāṭha—1+2, 2+1, 1+2+3, 3+2+1, 1+2+3; 2+3, 3+2, 2+3+4, 4+3+2, 2+3+4 and so on.

Since the words are repeated several times in different ways, not only the words but also the svaras or intonations have been preserved over the centuries.


  1. Ṛgveda Samhitā 10.97.22
  2. Prātiśākhyas are the works connected with phonetics of the Vedas.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore