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In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate expose the correspondence between textbooks and the colonial-racist discourse. This racist discourse produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

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Muktapuruṣa

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia
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By Swami Harshananda

Muktapuruṣa literally means ‘the liberated person’.

The basic works of the religion like the Upanisads and the Bhagavadgitā and also several secondary treatises based on them like the epics and the purānas, have described in detail, the characteristics of a muktapuruṣa, the liberated person, also called ‘jīvanmukta’.[1] The ātman or the soul is essentially free. But he has got himself entangled in the body-mind complex, suffering much and he is undergoing transmigration repeatedly, is also a recognized fact.

Other References[edit]

Though the cause of his bondage and the means of his deliverance as described in the various philosophical systems of the religion may appear to differ, descriptions of his state of liberation are almost similar. The Kathopaniṣad[2] says that a muktapuruṣa is fully free from all kinds of desires. So does the Bṛhadāranyaka Upaniṣad.[3] Some of the other Upaniṣads declare that a liberated soul is absolutely untouched by any kind of sin, heinous or venial.[4]

Synonyms of Muktapuruṣa[edit]

It is variously called as:

  1. ‘Jīvanmukta’
  2. ‘Sthitaprajña’
  3. Bhakta
  4. Guṇātita
  5. ‘Brāhmaṇa’
  6. ‘Ativarṇāśrami’

Other Works on Muktapuruṣa[edit]

Excellent and detailed descriptions of a muktapuruṣa are found in a number of authoritative religious works. The various works are:

  1. Laghuyogavāsistha[5]
  2. Bhagavadgitā[6][7][8]
  3. Mahābhārata[9]
  4. Sutasamhitā[10]

Conclusion[edit]

The gist of all these descriptions is that his mind has transcended all happiness, misery, likes, dislikes, passions and prejudices like lust and greed, avarice and delusion, pride, vanity and jealousy. He is ever immersed in the bliss of the ātman inside and looks upon the world as a reflection or a manifestation of Brahman, the Absolute.


References[edit]

  1. Jīvanmukta means the ‘liberated even while living in the body’.
  2. Kathopaniṣad 5.1
  3. Bṛhadāranyaka Upaniṣad 4.4.7
  4. Kausītaki Brāhmanopaniṣad 3.1
  5. Laghuyogavāsistha 5th sarga
  6. Bhagavadgitā 2.54-64
  7. Bhagavadgitā 12.13-19
  8. Bhagavadgitā 14.21-26
  9. Śāntiparva 245.12-24
  10. Muktikhanda 5.9-42
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore