Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Pañcāyatanapujā literally means ‘worship of five deities’.

Five Different Portrayals of God[edit]

The Ṛgveda[1] declares that ‘Sat’ or the Truth is one, but sages designate it by various names. Hence the various deities of the religious pantheon should be looked upon as various facets of one and the same God, generally called as Brahman or Paramātman in the scriptures. These deities can be classified into five groups each group representing different aspects of one principal god. They are:

  1. Viṣṇu
  2. Śiva
  3. Devi
  4. Gaṇapati
  5. Surya

Diversification by Śaṅkara[edit]

Gradually, various sects grew round these deities. The votaries of these sects, forgetting the Rgvedic dictum and the philosophy of the one Supreme Being, became mutually exclusive or even hostile. To rectify their attitude and put them back on the right track, Śaṅkara[2] is said to have evolved a method for harmonizing them all. The result was pañcāyatanapujā or worship of all the five deities simultaneously, keeping the iṣṭadevatā[3] in the center and the other four in the four corners of a square.

Mode of Pañcāyatanapujā[edit]

These five deities may be worshiped either in their images of small size or through symbolic objects such as śālagrāma[4] for Viṣṇu, bāṇaliṅga[5] for Śiva, metallic stone for Devī, red stone for Gaṇapati and sphatika[6] for Surya. Geometrical drawings[7] like square, hexagon or circle are also sometimes used to represent these deities.

Five Cosmic Elements with Deities[edit]

These five deities are represented as associated with the five cosmic elements:

  1. Gaṇapati is associated with earth
  2. Śiva is associated with water
  3. Devī is associated with fire
  4. Surya is associated with air
  5. Viṣṇu is associated with ether


  1. Ṛgveda 1.164.46
  2. He lived in A. D. 788-820.
  3. Iṣṭadevatā means the chosen deity of the worshiper.
  4. Śālagrāma means the round black stone.
  5. Bāṇaliṅga is made of white quartz.
  6. Sphatika means crystal.
  7. Geometrical drawings means yantra.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore