From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Pañcopacāras literally means ‘the five upacāras or modes of service’.

Pañcopacāras Definition[edit]

In pujā or ritualistic worship of a deity, the upacāras or direct modes of offering are important. They may generally be five or ten or sixteen. When they are five, they are called ‘pañcopacāras’.[1]

Five Pujās in Pañcopacāras[edit]

The five pujās involved in it are:

  1. Gandha - sandal-paste
  2. Puṣpa - flowers along with bilva and tulasī leaves and also durva or grass
  3. Dhupa - incense
  4. Dipa - lighted lamp for waving before the deity
  5. Naivedya - food-offering


  1. Pañca means five.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

Contributors to this article

Explore Other Articles