Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Prājña literally means ‘one who knows well’.

The Vedānta philosophy, based mainly on the Upaniṣads, has utilized the technique of avasthātrayaviveka, an analysis of the three states of consciousness, for proving the existence of a conscious soul[1] as separate from the body-mind complex. The three states of consciousness are:

  1. Jāgrat - It means the waking state. The jivātman as associated with it is viśva.
  2. Svapna - It means the dream state. The jivātman as associated with it is taijasa.
  3. Suṣupti - It means the deep sleep state. The jivātman as associated with it is prājña.

In the jāgrat state, the jivātman identifies himself with the physical body as also the mind. In the svapna state, identification with the physical body is transcended but that with the mind still remains. In the suṣupti state, even the mind is transcended and the jivātman is aware of only himself and as a sākṣi or witness. It is in this state that he is called ‘prājña’. He is designated as ‘prājña’ since prajñapti or consciousness is his only characteristic or form.[2]

However, the Vedāntasāra of Sadānanda[3] defines him as ‘prāyeṇa ajñah.’ ‘He is ignorant to a great extent’ since his conscious nature is overcome by ajñāna, by rajas and tamas.[4][5]


  1. Conscious soul is the jivātman or the ātman.
  2. It is called to ‘prajñaptimātram’.
  3. Vedāntasāra 44
  4. The commentary Vidvanmanorañjani on the section 44
  5. Māndukya Upaniṣad 9 to 11
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

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