Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Rudra literally means ‘the terrible’.

Rudra is a Vedic deity. He has been eulogized in only three suktas of the Ṛgveda out of which two are more explicit.[1] His name appears 75 times. He is also called ‘Śiva’ 18 times.

Definition of Rudra[edit]

The various definitions of the word Rudra are:

  1. One who roars or thunders
  2. One who makes his enemies weep
  3. One who destroys the sansāra[2] of his devotees
  4. One who destroys ajñāna or nescience

Form of Rudra[edit]

Rudra’s beauteous form has been described in various mantras. It can be briefed as belows:

  • He is strong with powerful arms.
  • He has a long jaṭā or hair.
  • He is very handsome.
  • His body is decorated with many ornaments of gold, especially a matchless necklace, is brilliant.
  • He is holding a vajrāyudha,[3] a strong bow and arrows.
  • When necessary he can also assume a fierce form.
  • Riding on a chariot, he charges at our enemies if pray to him.
  • Rudra is also full of mercy and a great protector of his votaries.
  • Being closely associated with forests and mountains, he is also the king of medicines and hence a healer of all diseases.
  • When supplicated, he destroys sins and grants happiness.

Works on Rudra[edit]

  • The Rudrapraśna of the Taittiriya Samhitā[4] gives a long and beautiful description of Rudra.
  • The Svetāśvatara Upaniṣad[5] describes him as the creator and ruler of the universe.
  • The Mahābhārata[6] and also quite a few purāṇas declare Rudra as the form of Siva who destroys the universe at the end of a cycle of creation.
  • In Vedic literature, sometimes eleven Rudras are mentioned. They may be minor deities representing the ten prāṇas[7] and the mind.
  • In later literature,[8] eight names of Rudra are mentioned, which are actually the eight aspects of Rudra-Śiva.
  • The eight Rudras or eleven Rudras, when considered as aspects of Rudra-Śiva, are described in detail along with their garments and weapons in iconographical works like Rupamandana and Viśvakarmaśilpa.

Spouses of Rudras[edit]

All the Rudras have their female counterparts or consorts like:

  1. Rudrāṇī of Rudra
  2. Bhavānī of Bhava
  3. Sarvāṇī of Sarva
  4. Śivānī of Śiva
  5. Mahādevī of Mahādeva
  6. Etc.

Band of Rudras[edit]

Rudra is also regarded as having created:

  1. Bhutas - demons
  2. Pretas - disembodied spirits
  3. Piśācakas - goblins
  4. Kuṣmāṇdas - malignant imps


  1. Ṛgveda 1.114.1-11; 2.33.1-15
  2. Sansāra means transmigratory existence.
  3. Vajrāyudha means thunderbolt.
  4. Taittiriya Samhitā 4.5
  5. Svetāśvatara Upaniṣad 3.2
  6. Anuśāsanaparva chapter 14
  7. Prāṇas means vital- airs.
  8. Padmapurāṇa, Svargakhanda, chapter 8
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

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