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Sri Ram Janam Bhoomi Prana Pratisha Article Competition winners

Rāmāyaṇa where ideology and arts meet narrative and historical context by Prof. Nalini Rao

Rāmāyaṇa tradition in northeast Bhārat by Virag Pachpore


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Śravaṇa,[1] manana[2] and nididhyāsana[3] is the standard method of Vedānta sādhanā.[4] When the aspirant listens to the statements of the Śrutis,[5] he must be able to understand their meaning and purport very clearly. Then only the next two steps are possible.

To get a clear understanding of the scriptural statements one has to apply the test of ṣaḍvidhaliṅgas. Saḍ means six and a liṅga is a characteristic sign. These are:

  1. Upakrama and upasaṅhāra - statement of the subject in the beginning and reiterating it at the end
  2. Abhyāsa or repetition - repeated emphasis on this subject to fix it in the mind
  3. Apurvatā or originality - showing that the meaning of this sentence cannot be gathered from any other source since it has never been stated earlier
  4. Phala or use - the utility of following the teaching thus obtained
  5. Arthavāda or eulogy - praising the greatness of the topic to make it palatable
  6. Upapatti or reasoning - logic in the support of main subject


  1. Śravaṇa means listening to Vedāntic statements.
  2. Manana means deep reflection upon them.
  3. Nididhyāsana means meditation on the truths intellectually realized.
  4. Vedānta sādhanā means spiritual practice.
  5. Śrutis means the Upaniṣads.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore