Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.

Samartha Rāmadāsa

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Birth & Spiritual Learning[edit]

Rāmadāsa was born in A. D. 1608 as the second son of Suryājī Pant and Rāṇubāī. He was born on the sacred Rāmanavamī day or the day on which Śri Rāma, an incarnation of god Viṣṇu, took birth as a human being. He was well-educated by his parents. Given to deep introspection on spiritual values, he devoted twelve years to tapas or austerities at a place called Tākalī on the bank of the sacred river Godāvarī near Nāsik, a famous place of pilgrimage. Later, he toured all over the country for another twelve years, studying the situation in the country and also utilizing the time for study as well as composing religious treatises.

Marriage of Samartha-Rāmadāsa[edit]

Rāmadāsa lived in A. D. 1608-1681. The utterance by the priest of the word ‘sāvadhān’[1] as a part of the routine rites of marriage ceremony roused the conscience of the boy Nārāyaṇa to such fiery heights of renunciation that he leaped out of the marriage hall like a leopard and ran away never to be caught in the web of worldly life. Later on Nārāyaṇa shone in the firmament of religious saints as ‘Samartha’ Rāmadāsa or Rāmdās. He inspired the king Śivājī[2] to protect the religion and society.

Title Samartha[edit]

The last few years were spent in vigorously propagating religion among the masses, rousing their pride in their religion, culture and motherland, and bringing about unity among them. Thereby he earned the title ‘Samartha’ which literally means ‘the capable one’. It was a spontaneous title from all. It was during this period that the king Śivājī became his disciple and drew a lot of inspiration from him.

Temples by Samartha Rāmadāsa[edit]

Being a great devotee of Rāma and an ardent admirer of Māruti or Hanumān, Samartha Rāmadāsa built a number of temples for Māruti in various towns.

Disciples of Samartha Rāmadāsa[edit]

He had four disciples all of whom were highly evolved souls. They were:

  1. Raṅganātha Svāmi of Nigaḍi
  2. Jayarāma Svāmi of Paḍagāv
  3. Ānandamurti of Brahmanāla
  4. Keśavamurti of Hyderabad

The group of these five saints together came to be known as ‘Ramadāsa Pañcāyatana’.

Scriptures by Samartha Rāmadāsa[edit]

The magnum opus of this saint is the famous Dāsabodha written in the Marāṭhi language. It is in twenty daśakas[3] dealing with various aspects of philosophy and spiritual life. Apart from the Dāsabodha, his other works are:

  1. Manāce Sloka
  2. Sphutakāvya
  3. Few abhaṅgas

Maṭhas of Samartha Rāmadāsa[edit]

He passed away in A. D. 1681 when his disciples were singing devotional songs, with the name ‘Rāma’ on his lips. The maṭhas[4] established by him all over the country. The number of his monasteries is more than hundred.


  1. Sāvadhān means ‘beware’.
  2. He lived in A. D. 1627-1680.
  3. Daśakas are the small chapters containing ten paragraphs each.
  4. Maṭhas are the religious centers or monasteries.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore