Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

The saintly devotees Ahilya Bai (left) and Mira Bai (right) holding murtis of their worship.

Sarupa-vigraha literally means ‘an icon with form’.

In ritualistic worship vigrahas or icons are used extensively. These may be sarupa[1] or arupa.[2] It can be classified as follows:

  1. Sarupa-vigraha - It has a definite form, the form of the deity to whom worship is offered. It may be anthropomorphic or otherwise. Excessive limbs like four hands or unnatural features like half-animal body are often seen in them to denote their supernatural status and power.
  2. Arupa-vigrahas - These are the śivaliṅgas, śālagrāmas, yantras, cakras and stones of irregular shapes.


  1. Sarupa means with form.
  2. Arupa means without form.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore