Sufism with Vaishnavism
Sufism in India has a very rich history. Attempts were made between the Hindus and the Muslims to worship together and forget differences between religion to live in peace. There were Islamic movements which combined Sufism with Hindu principles. For example, the Sat Panth and the Rasul Panth are some Sufi sects of this traditions. Vaishnavism however has played a crucial role to worship together for Hindus and Muslims. The saints Kabir and Dadu Dayal are said to have been raised in Muslim families but were very devout worshipers of Rama.
It has particularly been the Krishna and Rama avatars that have intrigue Sufism.
The Haqaiq-I-Hindi by Abdul Wahid (d.1608) of Bilgram was intended to explain the use of the Vaishnavite theme in the Hindi poetry recited by the Chishti Sufis to arouse ecstasy. He gave Islamic equivalents for features of the Krishna legend such as Krishna, Radha, Gopi, Braj, Gokul, Jamuna, Ganga, Mathura etc (Times of India).
Mirza Mazhar Jan-i-Jahan accepted both Rama and Krishna as prophets (Times of India).
According to S.A.A. Rizvi, Shaikh Abdul Rehman Chisti (1683) the Sufi interpreter of the Bhagawad Gita remarks the central part of Krishna’s teaching is illustrated in this verse:
"O Arjuna whatever you do consider Him as Its author associate none with them and Be assured that all is He that is one and no partner."
In original Islam
Perhaps the figures Rama and Krishna data back even towards early Islam. The following quotes supports this argument:
"Kaana fil Hinde NABIYYAN aswadal lawni ismuhu KaHiNa." [Taarikh-I-Baabul Kaaf]
Translation: "There was a prophet of God in India who is dark in color and his name was KaHaN."
In the quote, the constants 'KHN' exist in both the words 'Kahan' and 'Kanhaya'.
Figures that blended traditions of Sufism
Wajid All Shah, worshiper of Sri Krishna and performer of the Krishna Raas
Bhagat Bhikhan is a major figure of Sikhism. Two of his hymns are composed in the Shri Guru Granth Sahib. He was a preecher of Hari.
Ras Khan was a Krishnaite.
Sant Kabir's mantra was "Ram Ram". Sant Kabir was a Vairagi, or a medicant (sanyasi).
Farangi Mahli Ulema of Lucknow help Krishna is great respect.
Sufi Khwaja Hasan Nizami, the 20th century wrote that Rama and Krishna were both prophets of God.
Imam Shah said that Prophet Mohammed was a Kali Yuga avatar of Krishna and that Ali was the tenth incarnation of Vishnu.
Hasrat Mohani, an Urdu poet and freedom fighter for India, was said to visit Brindavan on Krishna's birthday.
Khwaja Nizamuddin Awliya use to sing bhajans along with qawali.
The Meo Muslims of Rajasthan elebrate the Holi and Diwali festivals.
Bade Ghulam Ali Khan and Abdul Karim Khan are famous vocalists for their bhajans and light-classical "thumris" devoted to Krishna (P. 123, Contesting the Nation: Religion, Community, and the Politics of Democracy, By David E. Ludden).
Sant Ramadeo, who is thought of as Hindus as an avatar of Krishna is called Ramdeo Pir by the Pirs.
Shirdi Sai Baba was a preacher of harmony between peoples of all religin. He was a Sufi saint, who preached both Allah and Narayan. He would chant "Narayan, Narayan" and "Allah Malik" (which are his most popular words). He took shelter in an abandoned mosque in Shirdi and called it Dwarkamai.
The Punjabi poet Sultan Bahu, who has been considered by some as the prime example of a Muslim poet influenced by Hindu Vedanta, says in this regard:
- This heart is burning with separation;
- it neither dies nor lives.
- O He, the true path is the path of Muhammad,
- along which God is found, O He.
- (Rama Krishna)