Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.

Yupa, yupastambha

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Yupa or Yupastambha literally means ‘sacrificial post’.

Among the Vedic sacrifices, about thirty are classed as Paśu or Paśuyāgas, wherein an animal is immolated. The post to which this animal is tied is called yupa or yupastambha made of wood. The trees out of which they are prepared are:

  1. Palāśa - It's scientific name is Butea frondosa.
  2. Khadira - It's scientific name is Acacia catechu.
  3. Bilva - It's scientific name is Aegle marmelos.
  4. Rauhitaka - It's scientific name is Andersonia rohitaka.

Rules for Making Yugastambha[edit]

Even for the selecting and the cutting of these trees, many rules have been prescribed. They are:

  • Along with the carpenter and the wood-cutter, the yajamāna[1] and the adhvaryu priest should also be present.
  • The standard unit of yupa’s measurement is aratni, one-fifth of the height of the yajamāna.
  • The height of the yupa varies from 1 to 33 aratnis, depending on the type of the sacrifice.
  • Usually it is 3 or 4 aratnis. The lowest part called upara is one-fifth of the total height and is not chiselled.
  • This part is to be buried under ground.
  • The shape of the yupa is octagonal with one face being wider than the other seven.
  • This portion should face the sacrificial fire.
  • It's height is that of the yajamāna in the standing posture with or without the hands raised.
  • The girth of the yupa is not fixed.
  • Its top has a cap called caṣāla, made of the wood leftover, after preparing the yupa proper.


  1. Yajamāna means sacrifice.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore