By Swami Harshananda
Śama literally means ‘peace’.
Treatises on Vedānta deal with the sādhanas or means of attaining mokṣa or liberation. In Advaita Vedānta, the preliminary step is known as sādhanacatuṣṭaya or four means. Out of these four, the third is śamādiṣaṭka or ṣaṭsampatti or the group of six disciplines beginning with śama. Śama is defined as the internal peace or quietude got by preventing the mind from rushing towards the sense-objects that disturb it.
- The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore