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By Swami Harshananda

Ānviksiki literally means ‘science of reflecting after’.

Ancient works on polity often mentions ānvīkṣikī as one of the four sciences to be taught compulsorily to the princes, especially the one who will become the next king.

Literally the word means something to be reflected upon (īks = to reflect) after (anu = after) hearing about the same from the preceptor. Hence, the earliest connotation seems to be ‘philosophy,’ the same as was later on known as ‘darśana.’

However, the word has been used in later literature more exclusively to denote the logical sciences, tarkaśāstra or Nyāya.


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore