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By Swami Harshananda

Sages of ancient times excelled in both the spiritual and secular sciences. These included:

Among those sages, Aryabhaṭa is associated with mathematics and astronomy. Historians have discovered two Aryabhaṭas in their research.

Aryabhaṭa I (5th cent. A. D.)[edit]

He was an astronomer and mathematician who lived in Kusumapura (Pāṭaliputra). His work called Āryasiddhānta (laghu) is a concise work in four chapters. The gist of all the four chapters have been mentioned below :

  1. Daśagītikā - The first chapter comprises of ten verses in the gītikā meter and is introductory.
  2. Ganitapāda - The second chapter deals with several aspects of mathematics.
  3. Kāla- kriyā - The third chapter is concerned with the reckoning of time.
  4. Gola - The fourth chapter expatiates on astronomy.

Aryabhaṭa II (10th cent. A. D.)[edit]

The work Aryasiddhānta is attributed to him. It is in 18 chapters and deals with arithmetic, algebra and astronomy. Mahābhāskarīya seems to be another title for the same treatise.


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

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