Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children is now published after academic peer-review and available through open access.

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences that Indian American children face after they are exposed to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We show that there is an intimate connection―an almost exact correspondence―between James Mill’s ( a prominent politician in Britain and head of the British East India Company) colonial-racist discourse and the current school-textbook discourse. Consequently, this archaic and racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces in the Indian American children the same psychological impact as racism is known to produce: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon similar to racelessness where the children dissociate from the tradition and culture of their ancestors

This book is an outcome of 4 years of rigorous research as a part of our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within Academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

Diwali, the festival of lights, is a five day long celebration. The fifth or the last day of Diwali is Bhaiya Dooj, popularly known as Bhai Dooj. Bhai Dooj falls on the second day after the new moon[1]. And it is a day to pray for the long life of one's brother, who is referred to as “bhayya or bhai”.

This festival marks the love between sisters and brothers, and is celebrated to strengthen the bond of care and affection between the two. Through the means of this festival, sisters commemorate their brothers with an auspicious tilak or a vermilion mark on their foreheads. In return, brothers give gifts to their sisters.

Name of the Festival[edit]

Each region has its own name for this festival.

  • Bhayya Duj (Hindi)
  • Bhagini Hasta Bhojana (Sanskrit)
  • Yama Dwitiya
  • Sodara Bidige (Karnataka)
  • Bhai Phota (Bengal)
  • Bhai-Tika (Nepal)
  • Bhav-Bij (Maharashtra)
  • Karthigai


The essence of the Bhai dooj festival is that it is celebrated to strengthen the love between brothers and sisters. It is a day of food-sharing, gift-giving and reaching out to the innermost depths of the heart. Brothers and sisters indulge themselves on this day by giving each other gifts.

Traditionally, Bhai duj is applicable for brothers of married women. Apart from strengthening the bond, it gave the chance for the brother to visit and check on the conditions of his sister at her husband's place.


So traditionally, all brothers visit their sisters on this day and give them gifts. Sisters too, pray for their brothers' long life and good health, and general well-being.

Story of Yama and Yami[edit]

Once upon a time, long long ago, Surya, the sun God, was married to a beautiful princess called Samjna (also pronounced as Sangya). In the course of a year, she presented him with twins. The twins were christened Yama, and Varni or Yamuna, and they grew up together. However, Samjna, after some time, was unable to bear the brilliance of her husband, and so decided to go back to earth. However, she left her shadow, Chaya, her exact replica, behind, so that to Surya, it would appear that she was still there.

Chaya turned out to be a cruel stepmother and was very unkind to the twins. She soon gave birth to her own children, and then convinced Surya to drive out Samjna’s twins, Yama and Varni from the heavens. Varni fell to earth and became the river Yamuna, and Yama went to the underworld (hell) and became the Lord of Death.

Many years passed since this incident. Varni married a handsome prince and was content and happy in her life. But she missed her brother and yearned to see him. Yama, too, missed his sister and decided one day to visit her. Overjoyed by news of her brother's visit, Varni prepared a great feast in his honor. It was two days into Deepavali, so her home was already decorated with lamps. She lovingly prepared a feast, including all the sweets and delicacies that her brother loved. Her husband, the handsome prince, was very happy seeing Varni so dedicatedly preparing a welcome for her brother.

Yama, too, was delighted by his sister's loving welcome, and the brother and sister spent a pleasant evening in each other's company, after their long period of separation. When it was time for Yama to leave, he turned to his sister and said, "Dear Varni, you have welcomed me so lovingly. But I did not bring you a gift. Ask, therefore, for something and it will be yours."

"Your visit is gift enough," replied Varni lovingly. "I have no need for anything else."

But Yama was persistent. "You must let me give you a gift," he insisted.

"Okay," agreed Varni, taking a moment to think. "I ask that all brothers should remember their sisters on this day and visit them if they can, and that, on this day, all sisters should pray for the happiness of their brothers."

"So be it!" proclaimed Yama, "And I grant all brothers who give their sisters a loving gift on this day a long and healthy life!"

Story of Lord Krishna and Subhadra[edit]

Lord Krishna, after killing Narakasur, the asura king, went to meet his sister Subhadra. Subhadra welcomed him in the traditional way by performing aarti and putting a tilak on his forehead to welcome him home.

How did Yama get associated with this festival[edit]

According to Ishavasya Upanishad

Pushan Ekarshe Yama-surya Praajaapatya Vyuha rashmin samuha. 
Tejo Yat te rupam kalyaanatamam tat te pashyaami, 
yo saa-vasau Purishah So aham asmi.

Yama and Surya (Sink and source) are the source of creation of Praja. The pair is also called Agni-soma, Atma-Jiva, or Shiva-Shakti etc.

Astronomical significance of the 2nd day of Krittika[edit]

According to the Taittiriya Samhita and Devi Bhagawata, the Raasa of Devas starts in month of Karttika. Raasa is the creation process in which consciousness is the control center and all others move around it.

Krittika and Vishakha are the 2 points of intersection of the ecliptic and equator[2]. The earth's axis moves in a circle in 26,000 years[3]. At the first point, two branches start like the blades of a pair of scissors (krittika) and the opposite point joins the two branches (Dvi-shakha or Vishakha). So the festival Yama-dvitiya is on second day of Karttika which is symbolized by pair of brother-sister.

Vishakha-pattanam is bounded by 2 rivers Nagavali and Vamshadhara which start from same place but remain separate throughout journey till sea, so it is Vishakha.


  1. The second day after the new moon is known as "dooj"
  2. Karttika Purnima is called Raasa-purnima because Raasa or the creation cycle (in years) starts when the sun enters the equinox point. Historically, this point was also known as Krittika.
  3. Manvantara in Brahmanda purana, chapter 7

Contributors to this article

Explore Other Articles