Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Bhikṣukopaniṣad is a small work counted among the minor Upaniṣads and is said to belong to the Śukla Yajurveda. It is devoted to a description of the bhikṣus or mendicants or sanyāsins.

Types of Bhikṣus[edit]

The bhikṣus desiring for mokṣa or liberation are of four types:

  1. The Kuṭīcakas - The kuṭīcakas take eight grāsas or mouthfuls of food daily and strive for mokṣa through the path of yoga. Gautama, Bharadvāja, Yājñavalkya, Vasiṣṭha and others belong to this group.
  2. The bahudakas - The bahudakas wear the insignia of a monk like red-robes, three bamboo staves tied together, a water-pot and so on. They too live upon eight mouthfuls of food got by begging. They avoid honey and flesh even though offered by the host.
  3. The hamsas - The hamsas are itinerant monks who do not stay in a place for more than a day if it is a village or five days if it is a city or seven days if it is a place of pilgrimage. They observe the Cāndrāyaṇa rite and practice yoga to obtain mokṣa.
  4. The paramahamsas - The paramahansas like Sarhvartaka, Āruṇi, Svetaketu, Jaḍabharata, Śuka and others sustain themselves on eight mouthfuls of food, practice yoga and pray for attaining mokṣa.

Lifestyle of Bhikṣus as per Bhikṣukopaniṣad[edit]

The Upaniṣad gives a long description of their way of life. It is as follows:

  • They live in secluded places like abandoned houses, burial grounds, temples or under trees or on the banks of rivers.
  • They are unconcerned about their dress and may even move about naked.
  • They accept alms from all, irrespective of their caste.
  • They have transcended from all attributes like good and bad.
  • They ever contemplate on the Ātman.
  • Living thus they give up the body at the time comes to depart.


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore