Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate expose the correspondence between textbooks and the colonial-racist discourse. This racist discourse produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia
(Redirected from Bhrama-samskaras)

By Swami Harshananda

Bhrama-samskāras literally means ‘error impressions’.

Vācaspati Miśra (9th century A.D.) of the Bhāmati fame, a prominent teacher of Advaita Vedānta in the post-Śaṅkara period, refers to two kinds of avidyā or nescience :

  1. The first is the psychological avidyā in the form of ‘bhrama-samskāras’ or error impressions
  2. The second is the primal, positive avidyā, which produces the beginning-less series of delusions and samskāras or impressions.

The latter, he calls ‘mulāvidyā’ or the ‘kāraṇāvidyā’ (primal nescience), which produces the former which is ‘tulāvidyā’ or ‘kāryāvidyā’ (derivative nescience). Bhramasarnskāras can be removed by the cognition of the true or real objects whereas the mulāvidyā can be destroyed only by the realization of Brahman.


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

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