Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Devanbhatta, one of the writers who prepared compilations and digests culling the relevant topics from earlier canonical literature, is well-known for Smṛticandrika digest.

He was the son of Keśava-bhaṭṭopādhyāya. He was also known as Devaṇṇa-bhaṭṭopādhyāya, Devaṇa, Devānanda, Devagaṇa and is believed to have lived in the 12th century CE.

Some other writers like Sukadevamiśra and Āpadeva have named their works as Smrticandrikā, but they are not so well-known. Devannbhatta is said to have written another work on music and dancing called as Sañgitamuktāvali.

Devannbhatta's Words for Smṛticandrika[edit]

The Smṛticandrika is an extensive digest. Devannbhatta claims that he has only collected the opinions of various authorities in his book, not adding anything of his own. He quotes profusely from several sources and earlier authors. He refers to Vijñāneśvara[1] with great respect though he differs from him on several points.

Content of Smṛticandrika[edit]

The brief summary of the contents of this work include:

  • Various samskāras or sacraments
  • Duties of brahmacārins (Vedic students)
  • Duties of gṛhasthas (house-holders)
  • Daily duties such as sandhyā, śrauta and smārta rites
  • Procedure of law-courts
  • Partnership rules
  • Dāyabhāga
  • Details about śrāddha

Origin of Smṛticandrika[edit]

Scriptures are divided into two major groups:

  1. Śruti : It includes the Vedas, Upanisads
  2. Smṛti : It includes Itihasas, Purānas, Smṛtis of Mam, Dharmaśastras


The Vedas deal only with the spiritual and other worldly matters, whereas ‘dharmaśastras’, a vast class of special literature, deals more explicitly with the present life at both individual and social level.

Some of the very ancient books among the dharmaśastras that did the pioneering work in the field include:

The later writers prepared digests and compilation, selecting the relevant topic from such pioneering and canonical literature and 'Smṛticandrika' of Devannbhatta is well-known example of such digest.


  1. Vijñāneśvara is an author of Mitāksarā on the Yājñavalkya Smṛti.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore