Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Gopura literally means ‘that which protects the town or city’.


A gopura is any high structure from where representatives of the armed forces can keep a watch over the movements of men and materials that may prove harmful to the society or the country.

Gradually in common parlance it got associated with the towers built over the temples. Gopura were built both on the sanctum and on the outer walls. The tower over the sanctum is generally small in size. They are called ‘vimāna’. The tower on the outer walls were usually of gigantic proportions. They are termed as ‘gopura’.

It is generally constructed with a stone base and the superstructure of brick and mortar. It is rectangular in shape. The exterior walls are covered with sculpture of stucco.

The various storeys of the gopura are similar but the sizes and dimensions become gradually smaller. The top is shaped like a semi-circular drum and is capped with kalaśas or finials which may be 3 or 5 or 7 or 9.

Types of Gopura[edit]

According to the architectural treatises like the Mānasāra, gopura-s are of ten types. They can have sixteen or seventeen storeys. Gopuras are built at the main entrances of temples. In the big temples, they can be situated in all the four directions if a high wall is surrounding them. Temple gopuras are generally of three types:

  1. Nāgara - curvilinear tower
  2. Drāviḍa - the form of a truncated pyramid
  3. Vesara - combines the features of both the styles above

Significant Gopura[edit]

The gopuras of some temples in South India are noteworthy. They are situated at:


  1. All of the above are situated at Tamil Nadu.
  2. It is situated in Karnataka.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore