Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

He is the the founder of the Pasupata Shaivite school - one of the 6 major schools of Shaivism. His form of Shaivism also known as "Lakulasamaya" and his doctrines as "Lakulasiddhanta".[1] He is styled as a "Jagadguru" (world-teacher.)[2]

Laulisa had written the Panchadhyayi (or Pancharthvidya.)[3]

Sometimes it is believed that he was the founder of Shaivism.[4]

Apart from being called Pasupatas or Lakulins, his followers were also known as "Lakulashaiva".Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag Others refer to him as Luktapani. He is also known as Nakulin.[5] Shaivite philosopher Abhinavagupta (fl. c. 975 - 1025, who studies the Shiva "Heart" doctrine has referred to him as Nakulesa.[6] Many devotees call him "Bhagwan Brahmeshwar". He has been called Lakulesh as well.[7] He has also been called Lakulisvara.[8]

Some have given him the title of a "Shankaracharya". [9]


He was born in Gujarat and most scholars agree that his birth would have been in the 2rd or 3rd century AD. Some believe that he died in seven months after his death and then Shiva entered into him.[10] It is believed that Lord Shiva entered the dead body in Kayarohana or Kayavatara (literally, "descent into a body") in Saurashtra, Gujarat. Many believe that the village of his birth place is Karavana, in the modern-day town of Dabhoi Taluka near Baroda.[11] However in the Karavanmahatmya, he is described as being born in Ulkapuri (modern Avakhal) and later went to Karavan to preach (Dyczkowskihe P. 23 Canon of the Saivagama and the Kubjika Tantras of the Western Kaul Tradition). Kaundiya claims that Lakulisa was born in Kayavatarana (Dyczkowskihe P. 23). The Siva Purana mentions that Lord Shiva entered a dead body in Kayavarohana (Dyczkowskihe P. 23). According to the Kurma Purana, he, (lord of the gods) resides in the sanctuary of Kayavatara (Dyczkowskihe P. 23). An Eklingji temple 14 miles from Udaipur, Rajasthan too mentioned in an inscription that he was born in or around Bharuch or Broach (Farquhar, P. 146, An Outline of the Religious Literature of India). The Cintra "prashasti" says that Shiva became incarnate into a human body in Kayarohana, within the Lata region (Farquhar, P. 146, An Outline of the Religious Literature of India).

His system is said to correspond to the Pancaratra system (Bhandarkar, P. 172, Vaisnavism Saivism and Minor Religious Systems).

He was held high also by the followers of the Kalamukha sect (Lorenzen, P. 5 The Kāpālikas and Kālāmukhas:).

It is believed by many learners of the Pasupatas that Lakulisa was a descendant in the family tree of Sage Atri, one of the Vedic saptarishis (Dasgupta, P. 7, A History of Indian Philosophy).

He had 4 main disciples; Kushika, Gargya, Maitreya and Kaurusha.

He is said to have (like Bhisma and Sri Krishna) possessed a power that he could live as long as he wanted to (Hāṇḍā & Handa, P. 34 History of Uttaranchal).

Occurrence in Sacred Texts[edit]

The Mahabharata claimed that he was a son of Lord Brahma and taught people the Pasupata system (Klostermaier, Klaus, P. 168, Mythologies and Philosophies of Salvation in the Theistic Traditions of India).

The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha of Vaishnava saint Madhavacarya wrote in the text, the philosophical system of Lakulin.

Visuddha Muni in his Atma-samarpana mentions the name Lakulisa.

In the Shiv-Mahapurana, it is said that Lord Shiva incarnated Himself as "Lakuta-Panisa" (Dasgupta, P. 7, A History of Indian Philosophy).

In Karavana-Mahatmya it is said that the son of a Brahman appeared in the village of Ulkapuri, as Lakulisa (Dasgupta, P. 7, A History of Indian Philosophy).

The Vayu Purana mentions the name of Lakulisa (Dasgupta, P. 7, A History of Indian Philosophy).

He appears in the Shiva Mahimna, where he is mentioned as a manifestation of Shiva (Shiva Mahimna) and his organization of the Pasupatas is too mentioned. The Pasupata beliefs are summarized in the Pasaputa Sutra.

See also[edit]


  1. Dyczkowski, P. 21, The Canon of the Saivagama and the Kubjika Tantras of the Western Kaul Tradition
  2. Sastri, P. 19 The Sivadvaita of Srikantha
  3. Mahajan, P. 376 Ancient India
  4. Mahajan, P. 376 Ancient India
  5. Hoiberg, P. 160, Students' Britannica India
  6. Muller-Ortega, P. 32, The Triadic Heart of Śiva: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta in the Non-Dual
  7. Mahajan, P. 376 Ancient India
  8. Lorenzen, P. 177 The Kāpālikas and Kālāmukhas
  9. Majumdar, P. xix The History and Culture of the Indian People
  10. Feuerstein, P. 344, The Yoga Tradition: its history, literature, philosophy and practice
  11. Dasgupta, P. 7, A History of Indian Philosophy

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