Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Origin of Virabhadra[edit]

When Dakṣa, the Prajāpati, performed a great sacrifice, he did not invite Śiva, his own son-in-law, for the same. Satī, Śiva’s wife and Dakṣa’s daughter, went to attend the sacrifice much against the advice of her husband. Dakṣa ignored her and also reviled her husband Śiva.

Unable to stand the insult, she gave up her body using her yogic powers. When Śiva got this news, he was infuriated. He created an ogre from his hair and commanded him to destroy Dakṣa’s sacrifice. This ogre was Vīrabhadhra. He was a partial manifestation of Rudra/Śiva.


Iconographical Representation of Virabhadra[edit]

Iconographical works show Vīrabhadra in different ways. He is shown with two arms, four arms or eight arms. Objects shown in his hands are:

  1. Sword
  2. Shield
  3. Bow
  4. Arrow
  5. Trident
  6. Skull-cup
  7. Goad
  8. Antelope
  9. Mace
  10. Hand-drum

He wears a garland of several heads and rides on a vetāla or a vampire. Bhadrakālī[1] and Dakṣa with the head of a goat in the posture of supplication are shown by his side.

Position of Virabhadra[edit]

Vīrabhadra is shown in a small shrine in all the temples of Śiva. He is also shown in the panels showing the Saptamātṛkās.


  1. Bhadrakālī is his spouse.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

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