By Swami Harshananda
Dveṣa literally mean ‘that which causes repulsion, hatred or dislike’.
Dveṣa, a General Meaning
Religion has always stressed the cultivation of moral and ethical virtues in the life of every individual since they conduce happiness in personal life and peace in social life. Just as there are virtues to be assiduously cultivated, there are vices too, to be avoided and eliminated. One such vice that is classed among the ariṣaḍvargas or the six enemies of every human being, is dveṣa or hatred. It's different forms and manifestations are:
- Droha - desire to harm
- Krodha - anger
- Amarṣa - intolerance
Dveṣa as per Nyāya system
It has been defined variously by the different philosophical systems. The Nyāya system considers it as one of the characteristics of the ātman since it experiences the same, in the state of bondage. It is the desire to give up that which causes duhkha, sorrow and suffering.
Dveṣa as per Yogasutras
The Yogasutras of Patañjali describes it as the residue in the mind after experiencing pain and suffering. Dveṣa is similar to the fire since it burns, as it were, our mind.
Side effects of Dveṣa
Dveṣa can be eliminated by removing the cause of dveṣa. However, viveka or discrimination in the mind, that pinpoints the evil effects of dveṣa on oneself, is a good method for eliminating it. Even trying to see God in everyone and the hand of God in the happenings that brings us suffering to reform and transform us, can be of great help.
- The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore