Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Ketu literally means ‘that which is known from a distance’.


Astronomical works recognize nine planets and they influence not only the human beings but also the world. The nine planets are:

  1. Surya - sun
  2. Soma or Candra - moon
  3. Maṅgala or Kuja or Aṅgāraka - Mars
  4. Budha - Mercury
  5. Guru or Bṛhaspati - Jupiter
  6. Śukra - Venus
  7. Śani - Saturn
  8. Rāhu
  9. Ketu

The first seven planets mentioned above are the guardian deities of the seven days of the week. The last two planets are actually the two ascending and descending nodes of the moon.

Mythological Account of Ketu[edit]

As per the accounts in the purāṇas, Rāhu was the son of Sirihikā and Kaśyapa. He was a demon. At the time of distribution of amṛta or nectar to the gods by Viṣṇu as Mohinī,[1] he had surreptitiously entered into the line of the gods. As soon as Viṣṇu discovered it, he cut off Rāhu’s head by his Sudarśana discus. Since then the head was named as ‘Rāhu’ and the body was named as ‘Ketu’. As per this version, Ketu is only the body of Rāhu. Hence he is shown like a serpent’s tail, whereas Rāhu is depicted only as a head.

Iconographic Representation[edit]

In iconographical works Ketu has been depicted in several ways as follows:

  • He is shown as a dark and ugly person, bedecked with ornaments, with two arms, riding on a vulture.
  • In another account, he is pictured as riding in a chariot dawn by pigeons, holding a gadā (mace) in one hand and other showing varadamudrā (bestowal of boons).
  • As a planet, he is malefic in influence.
  • Sometimes several forms of Ketu like Dhruvaketu, Chalaketu and Dhumaketu are also depicted.


  1. Mohinī was the enchantress.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore