Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.

Kukke Subrahmaṇya

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Kukke Subrahmaṇya is situated between two hills, Kumāra parvata and Seśaparvata. It is very near to the rivulet Kumāradhārā. It is a well-known pilgrim center of Karnataka State. It is 105 km (65 miles) to the south-east of Mangalore. It was originally known as Puṣpagiri and Kukke-paṭṭaṇa.[1]

It is believed that the original shrine of Subrahmaṇya, the chief deity of this temple may be at least 1500 years old. According to the local legends, Subrahmaṇya was also known as Kumāra, Skanda and Saṇmukha (the one with six faces). He is said to have washed his weapon, the Śakti, in the waters of the Kumāradhārā after killing the demon Tārakāsura and hence it is named so. The waters of this river is said have the power to cure skin diseases.

Shrine of Kukke Subrahmaṇya[edit]

The chief deity of the temple complex is the six-faced Subrahmaṇya. Over this idol is the icon of a seven hooded serpent. In the north-east corner, there is another shrine with the idols of the five deities:

  1. Ambikā - Durgā
  2. Viṣṇu
  3. Gaṇapati
  4. Īśvara
  5. Surya

There are also other shrines dedicated to Lakṣmīnarasimha and Umāmaheśvara.

Subrahmaṇya Maṭha[edit]

There is a Subrahmaṇya Maṭha (monastery) belonging to the Mādhva tradition. It was the first pontiff of which was Viṣṇutīrtha.[2] The original deity of this temple is in a place 250 meters (820 ft.) away from the outer wall to the north. Here, there is only an anthill with live snakes which is worshiped as the deity Subrahmaṇya. The greatest festival of this temple is the Subrahmaṇyaṣaṣṭhī which usually falls in December. Śaṅkara (CE 788-820) is said to have visited this place.


  1. The word Kukke probably means bāla or child.
  2. He was the younger brother of Madhva CE 1238-1317.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore