From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Sandhi literally means an ‘agreement’.

Sandhi as per Political Science[edit]

According to the treatises on religious political science, a king can adopt six methods of policy. They are:

  1. Sandhi - agreement or peace-treaty
  2. Vigraha - taking a hostile attitude
  3. Āsana - indifference
  4. Yāna - preparing to attack the enemy
  5. Sariśraya - taking shelter under a more powerful king
  6. Dvaidhībhāva - adopting a dual policy

Conditions of Sandhi for King[edit]

A king is advised to enter into sandhi[1] with other kings when:

  • His own kingdom is beset with natural calamities
  • There are more powerful enemies whom he cannot cope with
  • He should thus wait for better days

Rules of Sandhi[edit]

Sandhi is not advisable with kings who are equal or weaker in strength. In sandhi, the king can offer his army or treasury or cede a part of his territory to avoid total defeat or submission.

Types of Sandhi[edit]

Several varieties of sandhis, from four up to sixteen, are described in works like Kāmandaklya[2] and Agnipurāna.[3]

Sandhi as per Sanskrit Grammar[edit]

In Sanskrit grammar, the word sandhi means coalescence of two letters coming into immediate contact. For instance, when the letter i comes in front of a, they coalesce into e, as in para + īśa = pareśa.

Sandhi as per Ayurveda[edit]

In Ayurveda, it refers to the joints in limbs like the hands and the feet.


  1. Sandhi means peace-treaty.
  2. Kāmandaklya 9.2-18
  3. Agnipurāna 240
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore