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Rāmāyaṇa where ideology and arts meet narrative and historical context by Prof. Nalini Rao

Rāmāyaṇa tradition in northeast Bhārat by Virag Pachpore


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Arun Kumar Upadhyay

Paramāra king Vikramāditya of Ujjain is a central figure in history after Bhagavān Śrī Krishna and the end of Yudhiṣṭhira's rule in 3102 BC. Vikramāditya revised the calendar system with his Vikrama-samvat in 57 BC which is still used as the standard for all festivals. The calendar of his grandson Śālivāhana-śaka is also used for some calculations. Vikramāditya's family had ruled from 57 BC to 1200 AD (when the rule of Prithviraj Chauhan and Bhoja of Malava began).

The quantity of literature on Vikramāditya is only surpassed by the amount of literature on Rāma and Krishna. Every Sanskrit student must study the treatise entitled 'Vikramāditya's 9 Jewels'. After reading them for whole life, scholars tell that there is no reference about Vikramāditya. Chandragupta-2 of Gupta period had also been declared as Vikramāditya, about whom not a single word has been found in any inscription. Most of the famous monuments exist from Vikramāditya's time, like Rāma-mandir of Ayodhyā or Yoginī-mandirs at 4 places including Odisha. Sole aim of British empire was to destroy Indian history, but even the students taught in that pattern were having many doubts. So a paper on historiography has been added in MA (history) to dupe them. This article describes various aspects and reasons of destroying any history related to Vikramāditya.

Commencement of Paramāra Dynasty[edit]

Kānyakubja Brāhmaṇa (Viṣṇu incarnation of Buddha born as a son of Ajina brāhmaṇa of Magadha) went to Arbuda top (Mount Abu) and did Brahma-homa.[1][2] By effect of Veda-mantras, 4 Kṣatriyas were born :

  1. Pramara (Paramāra) of Sāmaveda
  2. Chapahāni (Chāhamāna = Chauhān) of Yajurveda
  3. Śukla (Chālukya = Solanki, Sālunkhe) of three vedas
  4. Parihāraka of Atharva.

Vikramāditya was born in the Parāmara dynasty to Gandharvasena and Vīramatī near the year 2815 of Kali as per Sūta.[3][4] Vikramāditya became Śiva after doing 20 types of Karma (Kriyā) yoga.[5] He was born by orders of Śiva to destroy Śakas and for growth of Ārya-dharma after the year 3000 of kali. He was named Vikramāditya and even as a child gave happiness to his parents. He went to forest at the age of 5 and did Tapa for 12 years. Then he came to Ambāvatī (Ujjain) with divine powers and Vaitāla created by Pārvatī for his protection. Vikramāditya went to Mahākāleśvara and worshiped the god Mahākāl.[6] He also made his great assembly there, decorated it with jewels and set up a throne with 23 idols. He ascended throne after worshipping and with the blessings of Brāhmaṇas. Then Vaitāla also came in the guise of a brāhmaṇa and blessed him. He stated history to king Vikramāditya.

Vikram Samvat and Solar Positions[edit]

As Vikrama samvat started in the period of Amśuvarman (101-33 BC), his earlier inscriptions are assumed in Śrīharṣa-śaka (456 BC) which is wrongly related to Harṣavardhana of Thaneswar (605-646 AD), who had never started any era as per his own writings or as per his biographer Bāṇabhaṭṭa or even Chinese traveller Huensang. Later inscriptions are in Vikrama-samvat.[7]

  1. No. 69 - Samvat 535-Śrāvaṇa śukla 7 (if it is in Śrīharṣa-śaka of 456 BC, year will be 79 AD-long after his rule. Thus, reference is Chāpa śaka of 612 BC giving date of 77 BC-after the beginning of Amśuvarman rule and before Vikrama-samvat.)
  2. No. 76 - Samvat 29 : Jyeṣṭha śukla 10. (Vikrama samvat now onwards)
  3. No. 77 - Samvat 30 : Jyeṣṭha śukla 6.
  4. No. 78 - Samvat 31 : Prathama (month name missing-Pauṣa as per next inscription) pañchamī-that year had adhika month.
  5. No. 79 - Samvat 31 : Dvitīya Pauṣa śukla aṣṭamī.
  6. No. 80 - Samvat 31 : Māgha śukla 13.
  7. No. 81 - Samvat 32 : Āṣāḍha śukla 13.
  8. No. 83 - Samvat 34 : Prathama Pauṣa śukla 2-year of extra month.
  9. No. 84 - Samvat 36 : Āṣāḍha śukla 12.
  10. No. 85 - Samvat 37 : Phālguna śukla 5.
  11. No. 86 - Samvat 39 : Vaiśākha śukla 10.
  12. No. 87 - Samvat 43 : Vyatīpāta- Jyeṣṭha kṛṣṇa (date missing).
  13. No. 89 - Samvat 45 : Jyeṣṭha śukla (date missing)

Jiṣṇugupta had 2 inscriptions in which dates are missing. His coins have been found.

Varāhamihira has given his date of birth as 8-3-95 BC (śaka, 3042, Chaitra śukla 8) in Kutūhala-mañjarī.[8]

In the running year 3042 of Sun’s son (Dharma) Yudhiṣṭhira śaka, in Jaya samvatsara starting with Vasanta (spring) in Chaitra bright half, on 8th date, Varāhamihira was born of Ādityadāsa by grace of Brāhmaṇas & Sun.[9]

When Yudhiṣṭhira ruled the Earth, Saptarṣis were in Maghā star. To get śaka years of that king, add 2526 to the present śaka. He has indicated his birthplace as Kapitthaka and spend the later part of his life at Avantikā, then under Vikramāditya.[10]

He has indicated the commencement of North motion of Sun from Makara sign in Bṛhat-samhitā and equivalent yoga calculation in Pañcha-siddhāntikā.[11]

Earlier books stated that the South motion of Sun starts from the middle of Āśleṣā (113020’) and North motion starts from the beginning of Dhaniṣṭhā. Now, it is from the beginning of Karka (900) and Makara (2700) signs, which can be easily verified by observation.[12]

When sum of Sun and Moon sign/degrees is 3600, then it is called Vaidhṛti yoga. This situation occurs when declination of Sun and Moon are the same but in opposite directions (North-South). When 10 nakṣatras are added (133020’), it becomes Vyatīpāta yoga. It occurs when the Sun and Moon have same declination, but on opposite ends of ecliptic. That is possible only when South motion of Sun starts from middle of Āśleṣā (113020’), which now starts from Punarvasu (Karka sign starts with its fourth quarter, 900). In his book Pañcha-siddhāntikā, he has taken reference year as 427 śaka (185 BC).[13]

On Śaka 427, Chaitra śukla 1 started when Sun was half set at Yavanapur, it was the day of Saumya (mercury, sun of Soma = moon). Thebaut has changed the name Saumya to Soma (Monday). S.B. Dixit made it Bhauma which means Tuesday, so that it tallies with counting from Śālivāhana-śaka starting after death of Varāhamihira in 78 AD. Yavanapura is assumed to be Romaka-pattana of Sūrya-siddhānta, 900 west from Ujjain. Actually, Varāhamihira has indicated it to be 7/20 Ghaṭī west (440 longitude) of Ujjain (75043’E) and 9 Ghaṭī west of Vārāṇasī (830 E) in Pañcha-siddhāntikā (3/13). So, it should be near Alexandria (300E), 1043’E from it.[14]

Sun sets from evening to sunrise and the middle point is midnight. When it is midnight there, there is sunrise in Ujjain. This Śaka started in year 2526 of Yudhiṣṭhira Śaka.[15]

Saptarṣis (muni) were in Maghā when Yudhiṣṭhira was ruling the world. To get Śaka of that king (Yudhiṣṭhira) one should add 2526 to the current Śaka.

Calculation is being given for Śaka of 612 BC and others assumed Śaka as per Jagannath. Hora software of Narasimha Rao is as follows:

  1. 612 BC - Epoch 18-2-185 BC : Chaitra śukla 1 started on 18 at 10-10-24 hrs. But sunrise at Ujjain was at 7-6-39 hrs. So date was 17-2-185 BC, Wednesday.
  2. 550 BC of Darius - Epoch 5-3-124 BC : Chaitra śukla 1 from 6-44-24. Sunrise at 6-53-44 on 4 March, Thursday.
  3. Vikrama Samvat of 57 BC : This is samvat, not a Śaka, still calculation is done for that as the difference is not understood.
  4. Chaitra śukla 1 of 427 year on 4-3-371 AD at 2-13-54 : Sunrise on 3 March Thursday at 6-51-51.
  5. Śālivāhana Śaka of 78 AD
  6. 427 current (gamya) year- Chaitra śukla 1 on 20-2-505 : This happened at 8-8-08 hrs. Sunday. As sunrise was at 7-0-22 hrs, Pratipadā will be counted on next day i.e. Monday.
  7. 427 lapsed (gata) - Chaitra śukla 1 on 11-3-506 at 3-14-54 : Friday on 12, sunrise at 6-43-49 on 10th.

Thus, the Śaka of Varāhamihira does not fit with any other year except 612 BC.

Books of Vikramāditya period[edit]

All of the Purāṇas were updated under the guidance of Vetāla Bhaṭṭa, one of the Vikramāditya's gems. The places where this work was done were

  • Viśālā, like mahāśālā of Śaunaka
  • Ujjayinī, the capital of Vikramāditya[16]
  • Vaiśālī in Bihar (famous as place of Bhagwan Mahavir)
  • Badarī-viśāla, where Ādi-Śankara had written Brahma-sūtra-bhāṣya
  • A forth location in the South of modern day India is also suspected.

  1. Harisvāmī commented on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa at the end of each chapter. Harisvāmī has called himself as Dharmādhyakṣa under Vikramāditya.
  2. Many smṛti texts.
  3. Tantra texts by Ghaṭakharpara. No texts were available on tantra earlier to this.
  4. Jaina āgamas by Kṣapaṇaka (= Śramaṇa or Jaina Muni).
  5. Suśruta-samhitā by Dhanvantari (3rd), his nava-ratna.
  6. Epics of Kālidāsa (second) indicated in Jyotirvidābharaṇa.
  7. Astronomy astrology texts of Varāhamihira-Bṛhat-samhitā, Bṛhat-jātaka, Pañcha-siddhāntikā, of Brahmagupta, Brāhma-sphuṭa-siddhānta and Khaṇḍa-khādyaka. Many other books by Vararuchi (Vākya-karaṇa), Satyacharya, Maṇittha etc.
  8. Revenue records by Śanku-revived by Akbar who copied Nava-ratna system also. Śanku is the instrument used for surveying described in Sūrya-siddhānta and other texts on astronomy.
  9. Amara-koṣa by Amara Simha, grammer by Vararuchi etc.

There are many others books. Main feature was that till the time of Vikramāditya, Sanskrit was the standard language. From time of his grandson Śālivāhana, literature in local languages started which flourished under Gorakhanātha in 800 AD.[17]

References in literature about Vikramāditya[edit]

  1. Bhaviṣya purāṇa (15 chapters refer to him)
  2. Kathā-sarit-sāgara, Bṛhat-kathā, Vetāla-pañchavimśati, Simhāsana-battisi
  3. Sāhasānka charita (in 3 volumes)
  4. All surviving genealogies of Paramāra kings (that survived destruction by the British)
  5. Literatures by Nava-ratnas of Vikramāditya
  6. Description of Vikramāditya by Al-Biruni, Abul Fazal, Ferishta, Badauni and other Persian historians of India
  7. Records of Vikramāditya in "Devī-Chandragupta"

Three widely studied texts, Raghuvamśa, Meghadūta and Kumārasambhava suspected of being authored by Kālidāsa under the pen name of Jyotirvidābharaṇa, make many references to Vikramāditya as well.[18] These descriptions include:

  • A description of Vikramārka (Vikramāditya):

    I (Kālidāsa) am writing this book under patronage of the great king Vikramārka of Mālavā ruling over 180 deśa (Provinces) of Bhāratavarṣa famous for his pious conduct based on Śruti (veda) and Smṛti (dharma-śāstra).[19]

This work by me is under patronage of great emperor Śrī-Vikramārka of Mālavā who is ruling over 180 provinces of Śrī-Bhārata varṣa which is most habitable due to knowledge & conduct based on Śruti (Veda) & Smṛti (Dharma-śāstra).[20]

  • A description of his army:

There is no king equal to Vikrama whose 3 crore army camp is spread over 18 yojanas, has million vehicles like 903 = 162,000 elephants, 4 lakh ships and whose march always ends in victory.[21]

  • A description of his conquests:

King Vikramārka is always victorious, who is axe for forest of brave Draviḍas, fire to burn the forest of powerful Lāṭa, Garuḍa for the snakes of Vanga, Agastya to drink ocean of Gauḍas, roaring elephant in Gurjara, Aryamā to remove darkness of the Earth and the Moon for the lotus of Kāmboja.[22]

Great king Vikrama donates pearls, gold & jewels daily and has established rule of Dharma after killing 99,999 Śakas in wars in all directions.[23]

King Vikrama conquered all difficult forts, defeated all kings and returned back their kingdoms, protected all people like Indra does for Devas and is Moon for blooming of lotus like people of world.[24]

  • Description of Ujjayinī, his capital city:

    King Vikramārka is always victorious. He is a king, who is shelter and provider of all people and whose capital Ujjayinī is a great city where Mahākāla Maheśa always remains. Valour of Vikrama is unsurpassed who conquered the Śaka king of Rukma-deśa (Julius Caesar of Rome) in great war, brought him to Ujjayinī, paraded him and then let off.[25]

  • Religion and well-being:

    As long as the great king Vikrama is in Avantikā, there is prosperity, happiness and well-being of all people and Vedic rights are followed.[26]

  • Bookmen in the court of Vikramāditya:

    Scholars who are also in the assembly of king Vikramāditya are Śanku, Vararuchi, Maṇi(ttha), Angudatta, Jiṣṇu(gupta), Trilochana, Hara, Ghaṭakharpara. Many other poets like Amarasimha are in assembly of king Vikrama where I live too. In addition to myself as author of Kālatantra (Kālāmṛta in 2 parts by Kālidāsa), scholars in the assembly of king Vikramārka are-Satya (āchārya), Varāhamihira, Śrutasena, Maṇittha, Kumāra-simha and Śrī Bādarāyaṇa (other than Kṛṣṇa Dvaipāyana Vyāsa of 3200 BC author of Vedas, Mahābhārata, Bhāgavata purāṇa, Brahma-sūtra and commentary on Yoga-sūta).[27]

  • 9 jewels in the assembly of king Vikrama are:

    Dhanvantari, Kṣapaṇaka, Amarasimha, Śanku, Vetāla-Bhaṭṭa, Ghaṭa-kharpara, Kālidāsa, famous Varāhamihira, Vararuchi.[28]

Division of Kingdom after Vikramāditya[edit]

When Vikramāditya went to heaven, many kings took charge and the kingdom was split into 18 parts. List of their names is as below. West boundary was at the end of Sindhu river, in South the boundary was Setubandha (Sea bridge by Rāma at Rāmeśvaram), in North the boundary was upto Badarīsthāna and upto Kapliāntaka in east. Within this, 18 kingdomes arose. They were named as follows:

  1. Indraprastha
  2. Pāñchāla
  3. Kurukṣetra
  4. Kāpila
  5. Antarvedī
  6. Braja
  7. Ajamer
  8. Marudhanva
  9. Gurjara
  10. Mahārāṣṭra
  11. Draviḍa
  12. Kalinga
  13. Avanti
  14. Uḍupa (Uḍra = Odisha)
  15. Vanga (Bengal)
  16. Gauḍa (East Bengal, Asam)
  17. Magadha (Bihar, Chhotanagpur)
  18. Kosala

Each part was under a separate king, had separate languages and many sects. This way 100 years passed. Then Śakas came.

Hearing decline of Dharma, invaders came in many hordes. Some entered Ārya-deśa by crossing Sindhu river. Others came by Himālaya and Sindh also. After winning and ruining Ārya-deśa, invaders returned to their country. They were very happy after kidnapping many women. At this stage, Śālivāhaan became king.[29]

He was the grandson of Vikramāditya and took over the kingdom from his father. He conquered the terrible Śakas and invaders from China, Taittiri (Tatars), Bāhlīka (Balkha in Iran), Kāmarūpa (East & north border beyond Asam), Romaja (of Roman empire), and crooks of Khuraja He punished all the invaders and imposed fines on them. He set up limits for Mlecchha invaders beyond west of Sindhu river. Bhārata (India) was towards the east of Sindhu river, hence was named as Sindhu-sthāna (Hindustan).[30]

Notes & references[edit]

  1. एतस्मिन्नेवकाले तु कान्यकुब्जो द्विजोत्तमः। अर्बुदं शिखरं प्राप्य ब्रह्महोममथाकरोत्॥४५॥
    वेदमन्त्रप्रभावाच्च जाताश्चत्वारि क्षत्रियाः। प्रमरस्सामवेदी च चपहानिर्यजुर्विदः॥४६॥
    त्रिवेदी च तथा शुक्लोऽथर्वा स परिहारकः॥४७॥ अवन्ते प्रमरो भूपश्चतुर्योजन विस्तृता।।४९॥

  2. भविष्य पुराण, प्रतिसर्ग पर्व (१/६)
  3. Chapter 7,

    अध्याय७-पूर्णे द्वे च सहस्रान्ते सूतो वचनमब्रवीत्। सप्तत्रिंशशते वर्षे दशाब्दे चाधिके कलौ॥७॥
    प्रमरो नाम भूपालः कृतं राज्यं च षट्समाः। महामरस्ततो जातः पितुरर्धं कृतं पदम्॥८॥
    देवापिस्तनयस्तस्य पितुस्तुल्य कृतं पदम्। देवदूतस्तस्य सुतः पितुस्तुल्यं स्मृतं पदम्॥९॥
    तस्माद् गन्धर्वसेनश्च पञ्चाशदब्द भूपदम्॥ कृत्वा च स्वसुतं शंखमभिषेच्य वनं गतः॥१०॥
    शंखेन तत्पदं प्राप्तं राज्यं त्रिंशत् समाः कृतम्। देवांगना वीरमती शक्रेण प्रेषिता तदा॥११॥
    गन्धर्वसेनं सम्प्राप्य पुत्ररत्नमजीजनत्। सुतस्य जन्मकालेतु नभसः पुष्पवृष्टयः॥१२॥
    पेतुर्दुन्दुभयोनेदुर्वाति वाताः सुखप्रदाः। शिवदृष्टिर्द्विजो नाम शिष्यैस्सार्द्धं वनं गतः॥१३॥

  4. Sūta stated that in 2710 year of Kali, Parāmara became king and ruled for 6 years. After him Mahāmara, Devapi, Devaduta ruled for same periods. Then Gandharvasena ruled for 50 years and went to forest after the coronation of his son Śankha. Śankha expired after ruling for 30 years. Then Gandharvasena had to return from forest and married Vīramatī sent by Indra. From her Vikramāditya was born and Devas showered flowers, beat drums, pleasant wind flowed etc. He went to forest with a saint named Śivadṛṣṭi and his disciples.
  5. .विंशद्भिः कर्मयोगं च समाराध्य शिवोऽभवत्। पूर्णे त्रिंशच्छते वर्षे कलौ प्राप्ते भयङ्करे॥१४॥
    शकानां च विनाशार्थमार्यधर्म विवृद्धये। जातश्शिवाज्ञया सोऽपि कैलासाद् गुह्यकालपात्॥१५॥
    विक्रमादित्य नामानं पिता कृत्वा मुमोद ह। स बालोऽपि महाप्राज्ञः पितृमातृ प्रियङ्करः॥१६॥
    पञ्चवर्षे वयः प्राप्ते तपसोऽर्थे वनं गतः। द्वादशाब्द प्रयत्नेन विक्रमेण कृतं तपः॥१७॥
    पश्चादम्बावतीं दिव्यां पुरीं यातः श्रियान्वितः। दिव्यं सिंहासनं रम्यं द्वात्रिंशन्मूर्तिसंयुतम्॥१८॥
    शिवेन प्रेषितं तस्मै सोऽपि तत्पदमग्रहीत्। वैतालस्तस्य रक्षार्थं पार्वत्या निर्मितो गतः॥१९॥

  6. एकदा स नृपो वीरो महाकालेश्वरस्थलम्। गत्वा सम्पूजयामास देवदेवं पिनाकिनम्॥२०॥
    सभा धर्ममयी तत्र निर्मिता व्यूहविस्तरा। नानाधातुकृतस्तम्भा नानामणि विभूषिता॥२१॥
    नानाद्रुमलताकीर्णा पुष्पवल्लीभिरन्विता। तत्र सिंहासनं दिव्यं स्थापितं तेन शौनक॥२२॥
    आहूय ब्राह्मणान्मुख्यान्वेदवेदाङ्गपारगान्। पूजयित्वा विधानेन धर्मगाथामथाऽशृणोत्॥२३॥
    एतस्मिनन्तरे तत्र वैतालो नामदेवता। स कृत्वा ब्राह्मणं रूपं जयाशीर्भिः प्रशस्य तम्॥२४॥
    उपविश्यासने विप्रो राजानमिदमब्रवीत्। यदि ते श्रवणे श्रद्धा विक्रमादित्य भूपते॥२५॥
    वर्णयामि महाख्यानमितिहाससमुच्चयम्॥२६॥

  8. वराहमिहिर-कुतूहल मञ्जरी-स्वस्ति श्रीनृप सूर्यसूनुज-शके याते द्वि-वेदा-म्बर-त्रै (३०४२) मानाब्दमिते त्वनेहसि जये वर्षे वसन्तादिके। चैत्रे श्वेतदले शुभे वसुतिथावादित्यदासादभूद् वेदाङ्गे निपुणो वराहमिहिरो विप्रो रवेराशीर्भिः॥

  9. आसन् मघासु मुनयः शासति पृथ्वीं युधिष्ठिरे नृपतौ। षड्-द्विक-पञ्च-द्वि (२५२६) युतः शककालस्तस्य राज्ञस्य॥ वराहमिहिर-बृहत् संहिता (१३/३)

  10. poem> आदित्यदास तनयस्तदवाप्त बोधः कापित्थके सवितृलब्धवरप्रसादः। आवन्तिको मुनिमतानवलोक्य सम्यग् घोरां वराहमिहिरो रुचिरां चकार॥९॥वराहमिहिर-बृहज्जातक, अध्याय २८-उपसंहार </poem>
  11. आश्लेषार्द्धाद्दक्षिणमुत्तरमयनं रवेर्धनिष्ठाद्यम्।
    नूनं कदाचिदासीद्येनोक्तं पूर्वशास्त्रेषु॥१॥
    साम्प्रतमयनं सवितुः कर्कटकाद्यं मृगादितश्चान्यत्। उक्ताभावो विकृतिः प्रत्यक्षपरीक्षणैर्व्यक्तिः॥२॥ वराहमिहिर-बृहत् संहिता (३/१-२)

  12. अर्केन्दुयोगचक्रे वैधृतमुक्तं दशर्क्ष सहिते (तु) । यदि च(क्रं) व्यतिपातो वेला मृग्या (युतैः भोगैः॥२०॥
    आश्लेषार्धादासीद्यदा निवृत्तिः किलोष्णकिरणस्य। युक्तमयनं तदाऽऽसीत् साम्प्रतमयनं पुनर्वसुतः॥२१॥ पञ्चसिद्धान्तिका, अध्याय ३ (पौलिश सिद्धान्त)

  13. शककालमपास्य चैत्रशुक्लादौ।
    अर्धास्तमिते भानौ यवनपुरे सौम्य दिवसाद्यः॥८॥ पञ्चसिद्धान्तिका, अध्याय १-सप्ताश्विवेद (४२७) संख्यं

  14. यवनान्तरजा नाड्यः सप्ताऽवन्त्यां त्रिभाग संयुक्ताः। वाराणस्यां त्रिकृतिः साधनमत्र वक्ष्यामि॥१३॥ पञ्च सिद्धान्तिका (३/१३)-पौलिश सिद्धान्त

  15. आसन् मघासु मुनयः शासति पृथ्वीं युधिष्ठिरे नृपतौ। षड्-द्विक-पञ्च-द्वि (२५२६) युतः शककालस्तस्य राज्ञस्य॥ वराहमिहिर-बृहत् संहिता (१३/३)

  16. Meghadūta 1/32 of Kālidāsa
  17. Sarasvatī-kaṇṭhābharaṇa-alankāra of Bhoja, verse 32
  18. ज्योतिर्विदाभरण, ग्रन्थाध्यायनिरूपणम् २२, विक्रमार्कवर्णनम्-
    वर्षे श्रुतिस्मृतिविचारविवेकरम्ये श्रीभारते खधृतिसम्मितदेशपीठे।
    मत्तोऽधुना कृतिरियं सति मालवेन्द्रे श्रीविक्रमार्कनृपराजवरे समासीत् ॥ २२.७ ॥

  19. Jyotirvidābharaṇa - Chapter 22
  20. काव्यत्रयं सुमतिकृद्रघुवंशपूर्वं पूर्वं ततो ननु कियच्छ्रुतिकर्मवादः।
    ज्योतिर्विदाभरणकालविधानशास्त्रं श्रीकालिदासकवितो हि ततो बभूव ॥ २२.२० ॥
    विक्रमार्कवर्णनम्-वर्षे श्रुतिस्मृतिविचारविवेकरम्ये श्रीभारते खधृतिसम्मितदेशपीठे।
    मत्तोऽधुना कृतिरियं सति मालवेन्द्रे श्रीविक्रमार्कनृपराजवरे समासीत् ॥ᅠ२२.७ᅠ॥

  21. सैन्यवर्णनम्- यस्याष्टादशयोजनानि कटके पादातिकोटित्रयं वाहानामयुतायुतं च नवतिस्त्रिघ्ना कृतिर्हस्तिनाम्।
    नौकालक्षचतुष्टयं विजयिनो यस्य प्रयाणे भवत् सोऽयं विक्रमभूपतिर्विजयते नान्यो धरित्रीधरः ॥ २२.१२ ॥

  22. दिग्विजयवर्णनम्- उद्दामद्रविडद्रुमैकपरशुर्लाटाटवीपावको, वेल्लद्वङ्गभुजङ्गराजगरुडो गौडाब्धिकुम्भोद्भवः। गर्जद् गुर्जरराजसिंधुरहरिर्धारान्धकारार्यमाः, काम्बोजाम्बुजचन्द्रमा विजयते श्रीविक्रमार्को नृपः ॥ २२.१४ ॥
  23. शाकप्रवृत्तिकाल- येनास्मिन्वसुधातले शकगणान्सर्वा दिशः सङ्गरे हत्वा पञ्चनवप्रमान्कलियुगे शाकप्रवृत्तिः कृता। श्रीमद्विक्रमभूभुजा प्रतिदिनं मुक्तामणिस्वर्णगो सप्तीभाद्यपवर्जनेन विहितो धर्मः सुवर्णाननः ॥ २२.१३ ॥
  24. प्रभुत्ववर्णनम्- येनाप्युग्रमहीधराग्रविषये दुर्गाण्यसह्यान्यहो, नीत्वा यानि नतीकृतास्तदधिपाः दत्तानि तेषां पुनः। इन्द्राम्भोध्यमरद्रुमस्मरसुरक्ष्माभृद् गणेनाञ्जसा, श्रीमद्विक्रमभूभृताखिलजनाम्भोजेन्दुना मण्डले ॥ २२.१५ ॥
  25. उज्जयिनीवर्णनम्- यद्राजघान्युज्जयिनी महापुरी सदा महाकालमहेशयोगिनी। समाश्रयिप्राण्यपवर्गदायिनी श्रीविक्रमार्कोऽवनिपो जयत्यपि ॥ २२.१६ ॥ यो रुक्मदेशाधिपतिं शकेश्वरं जित्वा गृहीत्वोज्जयिनीं महाहवे। आनीय सम्भ्राम्य मुमोच यत्त्वहो स विक्रमार्कः समसह्यविक्रमः ॥ २२.१७ ॥
  26. तस्मिन् सदाविक्रममेदिनीशे विराजमाने समवन्तिकायाम्। सर्वप्रजामङ्गलसौख्यसम्पद् बभूव सर्वत्र च वेदकर्म ॥ २२.१८ ॥
  27. नृपसभायां पण्डितवर्गा-शङ्कु सुवाग्वररुचिर्मणिरङ्गुदत्तो जिष्णुस्त्रिलोचनहरो घटखर्पराख्य।
    अन्येऽपि सन्ति कवयोऽमरसिंहपूर्वा यस्यैव विक्रमनृपस्य सभासदोऽमी ॥ᅠ२२.८ᅠ॥
    सत्यो वराहमिहिर श्रुतसेननामा श्रीबादरायणमणित्थकुमारसिंहा।
    श्रीविक्रमार्कंनृपसंसदि सन्ति चैते श्रीकालतन्त्रकवयस्त्वपरे मदाद्या ॥ᅠ२२.९ᅠ॥

  28. नवरत्नानि-धन्वन्तरि क्षपणकामरसिंहशङ्कुर्वेतालभट्टघटखर्परकालिदासा।
    ख्यातो वराहमिहिरो नृपते सभायां रत्नानि वै वररुचिर्नव विक्रमस्य ॥ᅠ२२.१०ᅠ॥

  29. श्रुत्वा धर्मविनाशं च बहुवृन्दैः समन्विताः। केचित्तीर्त्वा सिन्धुनदीमार्य्यदेशं समागताः॥१५॥ हिमपर्वतमार्गेण सिन्धुमार्गेण चागमन्। जित्वार्य्याल्लाँठयित्वा तान्स्वदेशं पुनराययुः॥१६॥ गृहीत्वा योषितस्तेषां परं हर्षमुपाययुः। एतस्मिन्नन्तरे तत्र शालिवाहन भूपतिः॥१७॥
  30. पौत्रश्च पितृराज्यं गृहीतवान्। जित्वा शकान् दुराधर्षान् चीनतैत्तिरिदेशजान्॥१८॥ बाह्लीकान् कामरूपांश्च रोमजान् खुरजान् शठान्। तेषां कोषान् गृहीत्वा च दण्डयोग्यानकारयत्॥१९॥ स्थापिता तेन मर्य्यादा म्लेच्छार्य्याणां पृथक् पृथक्। सिन्धुस्थानमिति ज्ञेयं राष्ट्रमार्यस्य चोत्तमम्॥२०॥ म्लेच्छानां परं सिन्धोः कृतं तेन महात्मना। एकदा तु शकाधीशो हिमतुंगं समाययौ॥२१॥