Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Navadurgās literally means ‘the nine Durgās’.

Significance of Durgā[edit]

Durgā is one of the most popular and widely worshiped aspects of the Divine Mother, Pārvatī. According to the famous work Devīmāhātmya, she is the personification of the essence and powers of all the gods. Works on the Devī-sect sometimes put forward several varieties of Durgā. Nine of these are often grouped together and called ‘Navadurgās’.

Navadurgās as per Devīmāhātmya[edit]

According to the Kavacastotra of the Devīmāhātmya, they are:

  1. Sailaputrī
  2. Brahmacāriṇī
  3. Candraghaṇṭā
  4. Kuṣmāṇḍā
  5. Skandamātā
  6. Kātyāyanī
  7. Kālarātrī
  8. Mahāgaurī
  9. Siddhidātrī

Navadurgās as per Brahmāndapurāṇa[edit]

As per the Brahmāndapurāṇa, the list includes:

  1. Nilakaṇṭhī
  2. Kṣemaṅkarī
  3. Harasiddhi
  4. Vanadurgā
  5. Rudradurgā
  6. Agnidurgā
  7. Jayadurgā
  8. Vindhyavāsinī
  9. Ripumāridurgā

Iconographic Representation of Navadurgās[edit]

Iconographically, the main deity is shown with 18 arms[1] and the other eight with 16 hands. The various objects shown in the hands are more or less the same as those of the main goddess. Some of them are:

  1. Akṣamālā - rosary
  2. Kheṭaka - shield
  3. Khaḍga - sword
  4. Darpaṇa - mirror
  5. Dhanus - bow
  6. Bāṇa - arrow
  7. Dhvaja - banner
  8. Tarjanī-mudra - pose of warning
  9. Śakti - spear
  10. Mudgara - hatchet
  11. Śula - lance
  12. Cakra - discus
  13. Śaṅkha - conch
  14. Etc.

These different aspects may be invoked for different purposes.


  1. It is approximately 18 hands.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

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