Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Parivāradevatās literally means ‘deities surrounding the main deity’.

Definition of Parivāradevatās[edit]

In every temple, in addition to the main deity in the sanctum sanctorum,[1] there are other deities surrounding it generally called as parivāradevatās. Smaller shrines are also built to house them according to the directions given in the iconographical and architectural works.

Designation of Parivāradevatās[edit]

These parivāradevatās may be members of the immediate legendary family of the main deity or other deities associated with it like:

  • Personal attendants
  • Guardians of quarters
  • Commanders of troops
  • Others

These deities are situated in the inner round. Other deities may be installed in two outer rounds. Though there is thus a provision for three rounds but the last one is rarely executed.

Parivāradevatās of Śiva Temple[edit]

The direction in which each of these shrines should face is also specified. For instance, in a Śiva temple, the following are the parivāradevatās:

  • Nandi or Vṛṣabha, the Bull - It is situated in east direction.
  • Brahmā or Durgā - It is situated in south-east direction.
  • Saptamātṛkās or Seven Mothers like Cāmuṇḍā - It is situated in south direction.
  • Gaṇeśa - It is situated in south-west direction.
  • Saṇmukha or Subrahmaṇya - It is situated in west direction.
  • Jyeṣṭhā or Alakṣmī - It is situated in north-west direction.
  • Viṣṇu - It is situated in north direction.
  • Surya - It is situated in north-east direction.

Parivāradevatās of Viṣṇu Temple[edit]

The Pāṅcarātra texts give a different list of parivāradevatas surrounding the chief deity in a Viṣṇu temple. They are:


  1. Sanctum means garbhagṛha.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

Contributors to this article

Explore Other Articles