Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Garuda literally means ‘one who flies with the help of wings’.

Significance of Garuda[edit]

One of the most common and well-known figures referred in the purāṇas is that of Garuda or Garutmān. He is pictured in a human form with two powerful wings and a sharp beak resembling to an eagle. He is the vāhana[1] of God Viṣṇu. He is also shown as the insignia on the banner (dhvaja) of the flagpost of Viṣṇu temples.

Garuda in Ṛgveda[edit]

The story of Suparṇa, the golden winged eagle, who brought the soma juice from heaven, appears in the Ṛgveda.[2] It is the basis for the later accounts of Garuda in the epics and the purāṇas.

Garuda in Rāmāyana[edit]

In the Rāmāyana of Vālmīki, he appears once on the battlefield, when Rāma, Lakṣmaṇa and others had become unconscious due to the nāgapāśa or sarpāstra (snake-missile) discharged by Indrajit. The serpents immediately fled off when garuda came there. [3]

Garuda in Mahābhārata[edit]

According to the Ādiparva,[4] Garuda was the son of the sage Kaśyapa[5] and Vinatā. Since Vinatā had become the slave of Kadril[6] due to a curse, Garuda liberated her from that curse by bringing the amṛta or nectar from heaven, as per the desire and condition set by Kadru. His many heroic exploits pleased Lord Viṣṇu very much hence he made Garuda his mount.

Garuda Iconographically[edit]

In the iconographical works, he is usually depicted as a human figure with powerful and outstretched wings at the back of the two arms. This is the pose of añjali or obeisance. Sometimes he is shown as flying and carrying Viṣṇu on his back. His two hands support Viṣṇu’s dangling feet. The color of his body may be that of an emerald or pure white. He is also decked with several ornaments.


  1. Vāhana means a mount or vehicle.
  2. Ṛgveda 4.26 and 27
  3. Yuddhakānda chapter 50
  4. Ādiparva chapters 31-34
  5. Kaśyapa is believed to be the progenitor of all living beings.
  6. Kadril was another wife of Kaśyapa.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore